Detailed concussion symptom analysis in a paediatric ED population.
ABSTRACT To examine the frequency of acute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) symptoms in children using a concussion symptom inventory and to identify which symptoms are most useful in identifying mTBI. It was hypothesized that symptoms associated with mTBI are more common in children with head injury than orthopaedic injury and certain symptoms are more useful than others in identifying mTBI. Research design: Prospective case-control study conducted in a paediatric trauma centre emergency department.
Children of 6-18 years old with head injury or a minor extremity injury were enrolled. Symptoms were assessed using a graded symptom checklist. Symptom frequency was compared using a chi-square test. The association between individual symptoms with AMS was evaluated with logistic regression analysis.
Children with head injury displayed more frequent symptoms than controls. Head-injured cases with altered mental status (AMS) demonstrated the most frequent and severe symptoms (median symptom scores: control = 1, cases without AMS = 5, cases with AMS = 10; p < 0.001). Headache, nausea, dizziness, blurred/double vision and not feeling 'sharp' were associated with AMS.
Symptoms associated with mTBI are more frequent in children with head injury. AMS magnifies this effect. A symptom inventory is integral to the evaluation of mTBI in children; a smaller set of dichotomized symptoms may be as useful as and more easily administered than lengthier symptom scales.
- SourceAvailable from: Benoit Christian Mouzon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that long-lasting morphologic and functional consequences can be present in the human visual system after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). The exact location and extent of the damage in this condition are not well understood. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology and immunohistochemistry, electroretinography (ERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) at 10 and 13 weeks after injury. Control mice received repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham). We observed decreased optic nerve diameters and increased cellularity and areas of demyelination in optic nerves in r-mTBI versus r-sham mice. There were concomitant areas of decreased cellularity in the retinal ganglion cell layer and approximately 67% decrease in brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A-positive retinal ganglion cells in retinal flat mounts. Furthermore, SD-OCT demonstrated a detectable thinning of the inner retina; ERG demonstrated a decrease in the amplitude of the photopic negative response without any change in a- or b-wave amplitude or timing. Thus, the ERG and SD-OCT data correlated well with changes detected by morphometric, histologic, and immunohistochemical methods, thereby supporting the use of these noninvasive methods in the assessment of visual function and morphology in clinical cases of mTBI.Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 03/2014; 73(4):345-361. · 4.37 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Up to 30% of children who have concussion initially evaluated in the emergency department (ED) display delayed symptom resolution (DSR). Greater initial symptom severity may be an easily quantifiable predictor of DSR. We hypothesized that greater symptom severity immediately after injury increases the risk for DSR.METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children 8 to 18 years old presenting to the ED with concussion. Acute symptom severity was assessed using a graded symptom inventory. Presence of DSR was assessed 1 month later. Graded symptom inventory scores were tested for association with DSR by sensitivity analysis. We conducted a similar analysis for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision. Potential symptoms characteristic of DSR were explored by using hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS: We enrolled 234 subjects; 179 (76%) completed follow-up. Thirty-eight subjects (21%) experienced DSR. Initial symptom severity was not significantly associated with DSR 1 month after concussion. A total of 22 subjects (12%) had PCS. Scores >10 (possible range, 0-28) were associated with an increased risk for PCS (RR, 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.2-8.0). Three of 6 of the most characteristic symptoms of DSR were also most characteristic of early symptom resolution. However, cognitive symptoms were more characteristic of subjects reporting DSR.CONCLUSIONS: Greater symptom severity measured at ED presentation does not predict DSR but is associated with PCS. Risk stratification therefore depends on how the persistent symptoms are defined. Cognitive symptoms may warrant particular attention in future study. Follow-up is recommended for all patients after ED evaluation of concussion to monitor for DSR.Pediatrics 06/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine the incidence, duration, and clinical course of individual post-concussive symptoms in patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) with a concussion. We conducted secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients 11 to 22 years old presenting to the ED of a children's hospital with an acute concussion. The main outcome measure was duration of symptoms, assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ). Patients initially completed a questionnaire describing mechanism of injury, associated symptoms, past medical history, and the RPSQ, then were serially administered the RPSQ for 3 months after the concussion or until all symptoms resolved. Headache, fatigue, dizziness, and taking longer to think were the most common symptoms encountered at presentation, whereas sleep disturbance, frustration, forgetfulness, and fatigue were the symptoms most likely to develop during the follow-up period that had not initially been present. Median duration of symptoms was the longest for irritability (16 days), sleep disturbance (16 days), frustration (14 days), and poor concentration (14 days), whereas nausea, depression, dizziness, and double-vision abated most quickly. One month after injury, nearly a quarter of children still complained of headache, >20% suffered from fatigue, and nearly 20% reported taking longer to think. Among patients presenting to a pediatric ED after a concussion, physical symptoms such as headache predominate immediately after the injury, emotional symptoms tend to develop later in the recovery period, and cognitive symptoms may be present throughout.PEDIATRICS 05/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor