Expression of human FUS protein in Drosophila leads to progressive neurodegeneration
ABSTRACT Mutations in the Fused in sarcoma/Translated in liposarcoma gene (FUS/TLS, FUS) have been identified among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). FUS protein aggregation is a major pathological hallmark of FUS proteinopathy, a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by FUS-immunoreactive inclusion bodies. We prepared transgenic Drosophila expressing either the wild type (Wt) or ALS-mutant human FUS protein (hFUS) using the UAS-Gal4 system. When expressing Wt, R524S or P525L mutant FUS in photoreceptors, mushroom bodies (MBs) or motor neurons (MNs), transgenic flies show age-dependent progressive neural damages, including axonal loss in MB neurons, morphological changes and functional impairment in MNs. The transgenic flies expressing the hFUS gene recapitulate key features of FUS proteinopathy, representing the first stable animal model for this group of devastating diseases.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Li Zhu, Oct 17, 2014
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sumoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates different cellular processes by conjugation/deconjugation of SUMO moieties to target proteins. Most work on the functional relevance of SUMO has focused on cell cycle, DNA repair and cancer in cultured cells, but data on the inter-dependence of separate components of the SUMO pathway in highly specialized tissues, such as the retina, is still scanty. Nonetheless, several retinal transcription factors (TFs) relevant for cone and rod fate, as well as some circadian rhythm regulators, are regulated by sumoylation. Here we present a comprehensive survey of SUMO pathway gene expression in the murine retina by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). The mRNA expression levels were quantified in retinas obtained under four different light/dark conditions, revealing distinct levels of gene expression. In addition, a SUMO pathway retinal gene atlas based on the mRNA expression pattern was drawn. Although most genes are ubiquitously expressed, some patterns could be defined in a first step to determine its biological significance and interdependence. The wide expression of the SUMO pathway genes, the transcriptional response under several light/dark conditions, and the diversity of expression patterns in different cell layers clearly support sumoylation as a relevant post-translational modification in the retina. This expression atlas intends to be a reference framework for retinal researchers and to depict a more comprehensive view of the SUMO-regulated processes in the retina. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.01/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1242/bio.201410645
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inclusions containing Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) are found in familial and sporadic cases of the incurable progressive motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a common form of dementia, frontotemporal dementia. Most disease-associated mutations are located in the C-terminal proline-tyrosine nuclear localization sequence (PY-NLS) of FUS and impair its nuclear import. It has been shown in cell culture that the nuclear import of FUS is mediated by transportin, which binds the PY-NLS and the last arginine/glycine/glycine-rich (RGG) domain of FUS. Methylation of this last RGG domain by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) weakens transportin binding and therefore impairs nuclear translocation of FUS. To investigate the requirements for the nuclear import of FUS in an in vivo model, we generated different transgenic Drosophila lines expressing human FUS wild type (hFUS wt) and two disease-related variants P525L and R495X, in which the NLS is mutated or completely absent, respectively. To rule out effects caused by heterologous hFUS expression, we analysed the corresponding variants for the Drosophila FUS orthologue Cabeza (Caz wt, P398L, Q349X). Expression of these variants in eyes and motor neurons confirmed the PY-NLS-dependent nuclear localization of FUS/Caz and caused neurodegenerative effects. Surprisingly, FUS/Caz toxicity was correlated to the degree of its nuclear localization in this overexpression model. High levels of nuclear FUS/Caz became insoluble and reduced the endogenous Caz levels, confirming FUS autoregulation in Drosophila. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the two transportin orthologues interfered with the nuclear import of FUS/Caz and also enhanced the eye phenotype. Finally, we screened the Drosophila PRMT proteins (DART1-9) and found that knockdown of Dart1 led to a reduction in methylation of hFUS P525L and aggravated its phenotype.Neurobiology of Disease 11/2014; 74C:76-88. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.11.003 · 5.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background and оbjective. Loss of conformation and function of sufficient number of proteins with high aggregation capacity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders (NDD). Due to a recent discovery of new array of proteins with the capacity to form aggregates of nonamyloid type, new NDD models as well as a new level of understanding in vivo models which are already exist is needed. DNA/RN Abinding proteins - FUS and TDP-43 play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. The objective of the study was to develop a new ALS transgenic model. Material and methods. In cell culture experiments, we studied mutant FUS proteins capable to form intracellular deposits morphologically similar to those observed in the autopsy material of ALS patients. Results and conclusion. We created a transgenic mice line, in which a pathogenic form of human FUS protein was expressed in the nervous system. That led to the aggregation of FUS protein in spinal cord and motor neurons with the following degeneration and development of a phenotype, similar to the human ALS disease phenotype, in young grown-up animals. This neurodegenerative phenotype corresponds to a great number of clinical manifestations of human ALS and is an adequate transgenic model of the disease.