Extraction of implantable cardiac electronic devices.
ABSTRACT With the increasing numbers of cardiac implantable devices in use, lead extraction has become a critical procedure in remedying device-related infections and complications. Lead extraction technology has grown considerably over the past two decades from simple traction maneuvers to the use of powered, telescoping sheaths equipped with laser technology. Data from single center experiences and randomized control trials have continued to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the most current lead extraction technology. Still, major complications occur in less than 1% of patients. Patient preparation and in-place laboratory protocols are important for the prevention of complications and the rapid diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening complications should they arise.
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ABSTRACT: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are lifesaving devices. Over 100,000 patients received ICDs in 2004 at a cost of $2 billion for the pulse generators alone. Because of expanded indications and coverage by Medicare, the number of ICD implantations and replacements is expected to increase dramatically during the next decade. The average ICD patient at our institution now lives nearly 10 years after the procedure. However, the service life of pulse generators has decreased from 4.7 +/- 1 year for single-chamber units to 4.0 +/- 1 year for dual-chamber devices. This mismatch between patient longevity and the service life of ICDs poses a significant clinical and economic burden that must be addressed. One near-term solution is for manufacturers to provide devices with larger batteries so that most patients can have an ICD pulse generator that lasts a lifetime. For the long-term, more robust or renewable energy sources are needed.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2005; 45(12):2022-5. · 14.09 Impact Factor
- Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2010; 55(6):579-586.
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ABSTRACT: Permanent leads with shocking coils for defibrillation therapy are sometimes implanted in the coronary sinus (CS) and great cardiac vein (GCV). These shocking coils, as documented by pathologic examination of animal investigations, often become tightly encapsulated by fibrosis and can be very difficult to remove. One of three configurations of the Guidant model 7109 Perimeter coronary sinus shocking lead was implanted into the distal portion of the GCV of 24 sheep for up to 14 months. Group 1 had unmodified coils (control), group 2 had coils backfilled with medical adhesive (MA), and Group 3 had coils coated with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). Eighteen leads, three from each group at 6 and 14 months were transvenously extracted from the left jugular vein. The remaining six animals were not subject to extraction. All animals were euthanized for pathological and microscopic examination. All six of the control, three of the MA, and one of the ePTFE leads required the use of an electrosurgical dissection sheath (EDS) for extraction. Five control, two MA, and none of the ePTFE leads had significant fibrotic attachments to the shocking coils. Significant trauma was observed at necropsy for those leads requiring the use of the EDS for extraction. Tissue ingrowth is a major impediment to the removal of defibrillation leads implanted in the CS and GCV of sheep. Reduction of tissue ingrowth by coating the shocking coils with ePTFE or by backfilling with MA facilitates transvenous lead removal with reduced tissue trauma.Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 04/2005; 28(3):205-11. · 1.75 Impact Factor