Butin (7,3',4'-Trihydroxydihydroflavone) Reduces Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of the Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway.

School of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690-756, Korea; E-Mails: (R.Z.); (M.J.P.); (K.C.K.); (A.D.K.).
International Journal of Molecular Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.46). 01/2011; 12(6):3871-87. DOI: 10.3390/ijms12063871
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, we demonstrated that butin (7,3',4'-trihydroxydihydroflavone) protected cells against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis by: (1) scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating antioxidant enzymes such superoxide dismutase and catalase; (2) decreasing oxidative stress-induced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels via activation of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, and (3), reducing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the cytoprotective effects of butin on oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, and possible mechanisms involved. Butin significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as determined by confocal image analysis and flow cytometry, alterations in Bcl-2 family proteins such as decrease in Bcl-2 expression and increase in Bax and phospho Bcl-2 expression, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of butin was exerted via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-1 cascades induced by H(2)O(2) treatment. Finally, butin exhibited protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic bodies, sub-G(1) hypodiploid cells and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, the protective effects of butin against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis were exerted via blockade of membrane potential depolarization, inhibition of the JNK pathway and mitochondria-involved caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can induce cell damage by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA damage and cell death. The aim of this study is to elucidate the protective effects of fisetin (3,7,3',4',-tetrahydroxy flavone) against H2O2-induced cell damage. Fisetin reduced the level of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical in cell free system, and intracellular ROS generated by H2O2. Moreover, fisetin protected against H2O2-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, cellular DNA damage, and protein carbonylation, which are the primary cellular outcomes of H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, fisetin increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, which is decreased by H2O2. Conversely, a GSH inhibitor abolished the cytoprotective effect of fisetin against H2O2-induced cells damage. Taken together, our results suggest that fisetin protects against H2O2-induced cell damage by inhibiting ROS generation, thereby maintaining the protective role of the cellular GSH system.
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