Multifunctional magnetic mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with a hierarchical pore structure.
ABSTRACT Hyperthermia and local drug delivery have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches for bone defects resulting from malignant bone tumors. The development of bioactive materials with magnetic and drug delivery properties may potentially meet this target. The aim of this study was to develop a multifunctional mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffold system for both hyperthermic and local drug delivery applications. To this end iron (Fe)-containing MBG (Fe-MBG) scaffolds with a hierarchical large pores structure (300-500 μm) and fingerprint-like mesopores (4.5 nm) have been prepared. The effects of Fe on the mesopore structure and physiochemical, magnetic, drug delivery and biological properties of MBG scaffolds have been systematically investigated. The results show that the morphology of the mesopores varied from straight channels to curved fingerprint-like channels after incorporation of Fe into MBG scaffolds. The magnetism of MBG scaffolds can be tailored by controlling the Fe content. Furthermore, the incorporation of Fe into mesoporous MBG glass scaffolds enhanced the mitochondrial activity and the expression of bone-related genes (ALP and OCN) in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) attached to the scaffolds. The Fe-MBG scaffolds obtained also possessed high specific surface areas and demonstrated sustained drug delivery. Thus Fe-MBG scaffolds are magnetic, degradable and bioactive. The multifunctionality of Fe-MBG scaffolds suggests that there is great potential for their use in the treatment and regeneration of large-bone defects caused by malignant bone tumors through a combination of hyperthermia, local drug delivery and osteoconductivity.