Phosphatidylcholine protects against steatosis in mice but not non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
ABSTRACT Several studies suggest that low levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) play a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) is the key regulatory enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis. Liver-specific elimination of CTα (LCTα(-/-)) in mice fed a chow diet decreases very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, reduces lipid efflux from liver, and causes mild steatosis. We fed LCTα(-/-) mice a high fat diet to determine if impaired PC biosynthesis played a role in development of NASH. LCTα(-/-) mice developed NASH within one week of high fat feeding. Hepatic CTα deficiency caused hepatic steatosis, a 2-fold increase in ceramide mass, and a 20% reduction in PC content. In an attempt to prevent NASH, LCTα(-/-) mice were either injected daily with CDP-choline or fed the high fat diet supplemented with betaine. In addition, LCTα(-/-) mice were injected with adenoviruses expressing CTα. CDP-choline injections and adenoviral expression of CTα increased hepatic PC, while dietary betaine supplementation normalized hepatic triacylglycerol but did not alter hepatic PC mass in LCTα(-/-) mice. Interestingly, none of the treatments normalized hepatic ceramide mass or fully prevented the development of NASH in LCTα(-/-) mice. These results show that normalizing the amount of hepatic PC is not sufficient to prevent NASH in LCTα(-/-) mice.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), leading to a speculation of a reciprocal cause-effect relationship and a vicious cycle of pathology. Here, we summarize recent literature reporting dissociation of hepatosteatosis from insulin resistance in genetic mouse models and clinical studies. We highlight rhythmic flows of metabolic intermediates between hepatic lipid synthesis and glucose production in normal circadian physiology. Blocking triglyceride (TG) secretion, subcellular lipid sequestration, lipolysis deficiency, enhanced lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis defects, or inhibition of fatty acid oxidation all result in hepatosteatosis without causing hyperglycemia or insulin resistance, suggesting that the cause-effect relationship between hepatosteatosis and diabetes does not exist in all situations.Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2012; · 8.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Folate is an essential B vitamin required for the maintenance of AdoMet-dependent methylation. The liver is responsible for many methylation reactions that are used for post-translational modification of proteins, methylation of DNA, and the synthesis of hormones, creatine, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine. Conditions where methylation capacity is compromised, including folate deficiency, are associated with impaired phosphatidylcholine synthesis resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. In addition, folate intake and folate status have been associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we provide insight on the relationship between folate and lipid metabolism, and an outlook for the future of lipid-related folate research. © 2013 BioFactors, 2013.BioFactors 12/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network of tubular and planar membranes that supports the synthesis and export of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylcholine (PC), are synthesized in the ER where they have essential functions including provision of membranes required for protein synthesis and export, cholesterol homeostasis, and triacylglycerol storage and secretion. Coordination of these biological processes is essential, as highlighted by findings that link phospholipid metabolism in the ER with perturbations in lipid storage/secretion and stress responses, ultimately contributing to obesity/diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurological disorders. Phospholipid synthesis is not uniformly distributed in the ER but is localized at membrane interfaces or contact zones with other organelles, and in dynamic, proliferating ER membranes. The topology of phospholipid synthesis is an important consideration when establishing the etiology of diseases that arise from ER dysfunction. This review will highlight our current understanding of the contribution of phospholipid synthesis to proper ER function, and how alterations contribute to aberrant stress responses and disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:Functional and structural diversity of endoplasmic reticulum.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor