Influence of telmisartan on insulin response after glucose loading in obese patients with hypertension: ARB trial of hypertension in obese patients with hyperinsulinemia assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (ATHLETE).
ABSTRACT The number of patients with both hypertension and obesity has been increasing in Japan. Many of these patients may also have insulin resistance. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), selectively activates peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, and this effect is considered to markedly improve insulin resistance in obese patients with hypertension. We compared the antihypertensive and insulin resistance-improving effects of telmisartan with those of candesartan and valsartan in this patient population.
Twenty-eight elderly patients with an average body mass index (BMI) of 27.1 kg/m(2) were enrolled in this 6-month study. Patients were randomly selected to either switch from candesartan or valsartan to telmisartan or to continue with their current ARB. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after switching, and the effect of telmisartan on the insulin response to glucose loading was investigated.
There was no significant difference in blood pressure between the two groups after drug administration, but glucose tolerance significantly improved in the telmisartan group. The hyperinsulin response to glucose loading also significantly improved in those taking telmisartan, as well as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). These changes were not observed in the control group.
In patients with hypertension and obesity showing insulin resistance, treatment with telmisartan significantly improved the hyperinsulin response to glucose loading. Telmisartan may therefore be beneficial in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of the improvement of glucose homeostasis through angiotensin receptor blockers are not fully elucidated in hypertensive patients. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle from wild-type and muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ knockout (MCK-PPARδ(-/-)) mice. Telmisartan increased PPARδ expression and activated PPARδ transcriptional activity in cultured C2C12 myotubes. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, telmisartan enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation as well as Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These effects were inhibited by antagonizing PPARδ or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but not by PPARγ and PPARα inhibition. Palmitate reducing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes could be restored by telmisartan. In vivo experiments showed that telmisartan treatment reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in wild-type mice but not in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. The protein levels of PPARδ, phospho-Akt, phospho-AS160, and Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane in the skeletal muscle on insulin stimulation were reduced by high-fat diet and were restored by telmisartan administration in wild-type mice. These effects were absent in MCK-PPARδ(-/-) mice. These findings implicate PPARδ as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance.Diabetes 12/2012; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Telmisartan has been reported to have beneficial effects on insulin resistance and lipid profiles by acting as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist. In this study we investigated the relationship between telmisartan dose and glycaemic control in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients (n = 263) who were prescribed telmisartan 20, 40 or 80 mg/day at our clinic were retrospectively identified from our clinical database. Only patients without changes in their treatments for diabetes and hypertension for 6 months after starting telmisartan were included in this study. Glycosylated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) levels were measured at 0, 3 and 6 months after starting telmisartan. At 3 and 6 months after starting telmisartan, HbA(1c) levels were significantly decreased in patients treated with telmisartan 40 or 80 mg/day but not in patients treated with telmisartan 20 mg/day (mean ± standard error change at 6 months: -0.29 ± 0.10%, p < 0.001; -0.48 ± 0.15%, p < 0.001; and -0.03 ± 0.10%, p = 0.33; respectively). When patients were classified into two groups by telmisartan dose (20 vs ≥40 mg/day), there was no significant correlation between baseline HbA(1c) and change in HbA(1c) levels over time in the 20 mg/day group. However, in patients treated with ≥40 mg/day of telmisartan, baseline HbA(1c) was negatively correlated with the change in HbA(1c) at 6 months. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that baseline HbA(1c) and telmisartan dose were the predictive factors. Our results suggest that telmisartan influences glycaemic control in a dose-dependent manner; doses ≥40 mg/day may be needed to improve glycaemic control. Our data also suggest that patients with higher baseline HbA(1c) may experience greater improvements in glycaemic control with telmisartan.Clinical Drug Investigation 07/2012; 32(9):577-82. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An association exists between hyperaldosteronism, hypertension and impaired insulin action. Eplerenone is a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; however, little is known about its effects on insulin action. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive adults, using the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, crossover design was employed. After a 6-week washout period, hypertensive, non-diabetic patients were treated with either eplerenone 25 mg twice daily or doxazosin 2 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. After each treatment period, insulin action was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, with isotope dilution methodology. After washout, treatment groups were crossed over. Fifteen patients completed the study. There were no differences in fasting glucose, or fasting insulin between treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin. The measure of overall insulin sensitivity, exogenous glucose infusion rates during the last 30 min of the clamp, was similar with both treatments; 23.4 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after eplerenone and 23.3 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) after doxazosin (P=0.83). Isotopically determined fasting endogenous glucose production rates were similar after both treatments (eplerenone 9.4 (0.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs doxazosin 10.6 (0.7) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was a trend for lower endogenous glucose production rates during hyperinsulinaemia following eplerenone compared with doxazosin (2.0 (0.8) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 4.1 (0.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). There was no difference in insulin stimulated peripheral glucose utilisation rates after treatment with eplerenone or doxazosin (25.4 (3.6) μmol kg(-1) min(-1) vs 27.0 (3.9) μmol kg(-1) min(-1)). This study gives reassuring evidence of the neutral effect of eplerenone on insulin action in hypertensive, non-diabetic patients.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 17 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.19.Journal of human hypertension 04/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor