Bacterial cellulose-based materials and medical devices: current state and perspectives.
ABSTRACT Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a unique and promising material for use as implants and scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is composed of a pure cellulose nanofiber mesh spun by bacteria. It is remarkable for its strength and its ability to be engineered structurally and chemically at nano-, micro-, and macroscales. Its high water content and purity make the material biocompatible for multiple medical applications. Its biocompatibility, mechanical strength, chemical and morphologic controllability make it a natural choice for use in the body in biomedical devices with broader application than has yet been utilized. This paper reviews the current state of understanding of bacterial cellulose, known methods for controlling its physical and chemical structure (e.g., porosity, fiber alignment, etc.), biomedical applications for which it is currently being used, or investigated for use, challenges yet to be overcome, and future possibilities for BC.
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ABSTRACT: Nanocellulose, a unique and promising natural material extracted from native cellulose, has gained much attention for its use as biomedical material, because of its remarkable physical properties, special surface chemistry and excellent biological properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity). Three different types of nanocellulose, viz. cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bacterial cellulose (BC), are introduced and compared in terms of production, properties and biomedical applications in this article. The advancement of nanocellulose-based biomedical materials is summarized and discussed on the analysis of latest studies (especially reports from the past five years). Selected studies with significant findings are emphasized, and focused topics for nanocellulose in biomedicine research in this article include the discussion at the level of molecule (e.g. tissue bioscaffolds for cellular culture; drug excipient and drug delivery; and immobilization and recognition of enzyme/protein) as well as at the level of macroscopic biomaterials (e.g. blood vessel and soft tissue substitutes; skin and bone tissue repair materials; and antimicrobial materials). Functional modification of nanocellulose will determine the potential biomedical application for nanocellulose, which is also introduced as a separated section in the article. Finally, future perspectives and possible research points are proposed in Section 5. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.European Polymer Journal 10/2014; 59:302–325. DOI:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.07.025
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ABSTRACT: Providing a conclusive micro environment for cell growth, proliferation and differentiation is a major developmental strategy in the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This is usually achieved in the laboratory by culturing cells in three-dimensional polymer-based scaffolding materials. Here, we describe the fabrication of a cellulose scaffold for tissue engineering purposes from cellulose fiber using a salt leaching method. The 1-n-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) IL was used as a solvent for cellulose. The leaching methodology used in this study offers the unique advantage of providing effective control of scaffold porosity by simply varying cellulose concentration. Morphologic testing of the scaffolds produced revealed pore sizes of 200 to 500 μm. In addition, the scaffolds had high water adsorption rates and slow degradation rates. To further investigate the suitability of these scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, bio compatibility was checked using an MTT assay and confirmed by Live/Dead® viability testing. In addition, SEM and DAPI studies and in vivo experiment demonstrated the ability of cells to attach to scaffold surfaces, and a bio compatibility of matrices with cells, respectively. The authors describe the environmentally friendly fabrication of a novel cellulose-based tissue engineering scaffold.Cellulose 08/2014; 21(5):515-3525. DOI:10.1007/s10570-014-0368-2
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ABSTRACT: Cotton-based nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), also known as nanopaper, one of the major sources of renewable materials, is a promising substrate and component for producing low cost fully recyclable flexible paper electronic devices and systems due to its properties (lightweight, stiffness, non-toxicity, transparency, low thermal expansion, gas impermeability and improved mechanical properties).Here, we have demonstrated for the first time a thin transparent nanopaper-based field effect transistor (FET) where NCC is simultaneously used as the substrate and as the gate dielectric layer in an 'interstrate' structure, since the device is built on both sides of the NCC films; while the active channel layer is based on oxide amorphous semiconductors, the gate electrode is based on a transparent conductive oxide.Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>7 cm(2) V (-1) s(-1)), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio higher than 10(5), enhancement n-type operation and subthreshold gate voltage swing of 2.11 V/decade. The NCC film FET characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability, after two weeks of being processed, without any type of encapsulation or passivation layer. The results obtained are comparable to ones produced for conventional cellulose paper, marking this out as a promising approach for attaining high-performance disposable electronics such as paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID (radio-frequency identification) and point-of-care systems for self-analysis in bioscience applications, among others.Nanotechnology 02/2014; 25(9):094008. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/25/9/094008