SUMOylation regulates telomere length homeostasis by targeting Cdc13

Molecular Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 13.31). 07/2011; 18(8):920-6. DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.2100
Source: PubMed


Telomere length homeostasis is an important aspect of telomere biology. Here, we show that SUMOylation limits telomere length and targets multiple telomere proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A main target is Cdc13, which both positively and negatively regulates telomerase and confers end protection. We demonstrate that Cdc13 SUMOylation restrains telomerase functions by promoting Cdc13 interaction with the telomerase inhibitor Stn1 without affecting end protection. Mutation of the Cdc13 SUMOylation site (cdc13-snm) lengthens telomeres and reduces the Stn1 interaction, whereas Cdc13-SUMO fusion has the opposite effects. cdc13-snm's effect on telomere length is epistatic with stn1, but not with yku70, tel1 or est1 alleles, and is suppressed by Stn1 overexpression. Cdc13 SUMOylation peaks in early-mid S phase, prior to its known Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation, and the two modifications act antagonistically, suggesting that the opposite roles of Cdc13 in telomerase regulation can be separated temporally and regulated by distinct modifications.

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    • "Sumoylated proteins were detected as in Hang et al. (2011). In brief, mid-log phase cells were treated with 0.03% or 0.3% MMS for 2 hr and lysed in denaturing conditions followed by immunoprecipitation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidating the individual and collaborative functions of genome maintenance factors is critical for understanding how genome duplication is achieved. Here, we investigate a conserved scaffold in budding yeast, Rtt107, and its three partners: a SUMO E3 complex, a ubiquitin E3 complex, and Slx4. Biochemical and genetic findings show that Rtt107 interacts separately with these partners and contributes to their individual functions, including a role in replisome sumoylation. We also provide evidence that Rtt107 associates with replisome components, and both itself and its associated E3s are important for replicating regions far from initiation sites. Corroborating these results, replication defects due to Rtt107 loss and genotoxic sensitivities in mutants of Rtt107 and its associated E3s are rescued by increasing replication initiation events through mutating two master repressors of late origins, Mrc1 and Mec1. These findings suggest that Rtt107 functions as a multi-functional platform to support replication progression with its partner E3 enzymes.
    Molecular cell 10/2015; 60(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.08.023 · 14.02 Impact Factor
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    • "For Figure 1A, UV and MMS doses were chosen based on comparable survival posttreatment as shown in Supplementary Figure S1A–B. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed as described previously (51). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1-Rad10 complex is a conserved, structure-specific endonuclease important for repairing multiple types of DNA lesions. Upon recruitment to lesion sites, Rad1-Rad10 removes damaged sequences, enabling subsequent gap filling and ligation. Acting at mid-steps of repair, the association and dissociation of Rad1-Rad10 with DNA can influence repair efficiency. We show that genotoxin-enhanced Rad1 sumoylation occurs after the nuclease is recruited to lesion sites. A single lysine outside Rad1's nuclease and Rad10-binding domains is sumoylated in vivo and in vitro. Mutation of this site to arginine abolishes Rad1 sumoylation and impairs Rad1-mediated repair at high doses of DNA damage, but sustains the repair of a single double-stranded break. The timing of Rad1 sumoylation and the phenotype bias toward high lesion loads point to a post-incision role for sumoylation, possibly affecting Rad1 dissociation from DNA. Indeed, biochemical examination shows that sumoylation of Rad1 decreases the complex's affinity for DNA without affecting other protein properties. These findings suggest a model whereby sumoylation of Rad1 promotes its disengagement from DNA after nuclease cleavage, allowing it to efficiently attend to large numbers of DNA lesions.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2014; 42(10). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku300 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    • "However , c. 200 gene deletions (among them the well-characterized rad52D mutant) accelerated entry into senescence, and such cells often could not recover growth. A smaller number of strains (among them rif1D) accelerated both entry into senescence and subsequent recovery (Chang et al., 2011). A screen for enhancers of the MMS sensitivity of tel1D uncovered a small number (13) of genes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the ends of the linear eukaryotic chromosomes and thereby protect their stability and integrity. Telomeres play central roles in maintaining the genome's integrity, distinguishing between the natural chromosomal ends and unwanted double-stranded breaks. In addition, telomeres are replicated by a special reverse transcriptase called telomerase, in a complex mechanism that is coordinated with the genome's replication. Telomeres also play an important role in tethering the chromosomes to the nuclear envelope, thus helping in positioning the chromosomes within the nucleus. The special chromatin configuration of telomeres affects the expression of nearby genes; nonetheless, telomeres are transcribed, creating noncoding RNA molecules that hybridize to the chromosomal ends and seem to play regulatory roles. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with its sophisticated genetics and molecular biology, has provided many fundamental concepts in telomere biology, which were later found to be conserved in all organisms. Here, we present an overview of all the aspects of telomere biology investigated in yeast, which continues to provide new insights into this complex and important subject, which has significant medical implications, especially in the fields of aging and cancer.
    FEMS microbiology reviews 03/2014; 38(2):144-71. DOI:10.1111/1574-6976.12054 · 13.24 Impact Factor
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