Catecholaminergic-induced arrhythmias in failing cardiomyocytes associated with human HRCS96A variant overexpression
ABSTRACT The histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC) Ser96Ala polymorphism was shown to correlate with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death only in dilated cardiomyopathy patients but not in healthy human carriers. In the present study, we assessed the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human arrhythmias by adenoviral expression of the human wild-type (HRC(WT)) or mutant HRC (HRC(S96A)) in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Total HRC protein was increased by ∼50% in both HRC(WT)- and HRC(S96A)-infected cells. The HRC(S96A) mutant exacerbated the inhibitory effects of HRC(WT) on the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients, prolongation of Ca(2+) decay time, and caffeine-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. Consistent with these findings, HRC(S96A) reduced maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake rate to a higher extent than HRC(WT). Furthermore, the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks, which was reduced by HRC(WT), was increased by mutant HRC(S96A) under resting conditions although there were no spontaneous Ca(2+) waves under stress conditions. However, expression of the HRC(S96A) genetic variant in cardiomyocytes from a rat model of postmyocardial infarction heart failure induced dramatic disturbances of rhythmic Ca(2+) transients. These findings indicate that the HRC Ser96Ala variant increases the propensity of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves in the stressed failing heart, suggesting a link between this genetic variant and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in human carriers.
Article: Calsequestrin 2 and arrhythmias.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calsequestrin is the most abundant Ca-binding protein of the specialized endoplasmic reticulum found in muscle, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Calsequestrin binds Ca with high capacity and low affinity and importantly contributes to the mobilization of Ca during each contraction both in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Surprisingly, mutations in the gene encoding the cardiac isoform of calsequestrin (Casq2) have been associated with an inherited form of ventricular arrhythmia triggered by emotional or physical stress termed catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Despite normal cardiac contractility and normal resting ECG, CPVT patients present with a high risk of sudden death at a young age. Here, we review recent new insights regarding the role of calsequestrin in genetic and acquired arrhythmia disorders. Mouse models of CPVT have shed light on the pathophysiological mechanism underlying CPVT. Casq2 is not only a Ca-storing protein as initially hypothesized, but it has a far more complex function in Ca handling and regulating SR Ca release channels. The functional importance of Casq2 interactions with other SR proteins and the importance of alterations in Casq2 trafficking are also being investigated. Reports of altered Casq2 trafficking in animal models of acquired heart diseases such as heart failure suggest that Casq2 may contribute to arrhythmia risk beyond genetic forms of Casq2 dysfunction.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 12/2011; 302(6):H1250-60. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00779.2011 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac calsequestrin (Casq2) is the major Ca2+ binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is the principle Ca2+ storage organelle of cardiac muscle. During the last decade, experimental studies have provided new concepts on the role of Casq2 in the regulation of cardiac muscle Ca2+ handling. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding for cardiac calsequestrin, CASQ2, cause a rare but severe form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Here, we review the physiology of Casq2 in cardiac Ca2+ handling and discuss pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to CPVT caused by CASQ2 mutations. We also describe the clinical aspects of CPVT and provide an update of its contemporary clinical management.Pediatric Cardiology 03/2012; 33(6):959-67. DOI:10.1007/s00246-012-0256-1 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heart disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Current therapies aim at treating the symptoms rather than the subcellular mechanisms, underlying the etiology and pathological remodeling in heart failure. A universal characteristic, contributing to the decreased contractile performance in human and experimental failing hearts, is impaired calcium sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). SR calcium uptake is mediated by a Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2), whose activity is reversibly regulated by phospholamban (PLN). Dephosphorylated PLN is an inhibitor of SERCA and phosphorylation of PLN relieves this inhibition. However, the initial simple view of a PLN/SERCA regulatory complex has been modified by our recent identification of SUMO, S100 and the histidine-rich Ca-binding protein as regulators of SERCA activity. In addition, PLN activity is regulated by 2 phosphoproteins, the inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase 1 and the small heat shock protein 20, which affect the overall SERCA-mediated Ca-transport. This review will highlight the regulatory mechanisms of cardiac contractility by the multimeric SERCA/PLN-ensemble and the potential for new therapeutic avenues targeting this complex by using small molecules and gene transfer methods.Circulation Research 06/2012; 110(12):1646-60. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.259754 · 11.09 Impact Factor