Catecholaminergic-induced arrhythmias in failing cardiomyocytes associated with human HRCS96A variant overexpression.
ABSTRACT The histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC) Ser96Ala polymorphism was shown to correlate with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death only in dilated cardiomyopathy patients but not in healthy human carriers. In the present study, we assessed the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying human arrhythmias by adenoviral expression of the human wild-type (HRC(WT)) or mutant HRC (HRC(S96A)) in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Total HRC protein was increased by ∼50% in both HRC(WT)- and HRC(S96A)-infected cells. The HRC(S96A) mutant exacerbated the inhibitory effects of HRC(WT) on the amplitude of Ca(2+) transients, prolongation of Ca(2+) decay time, and caffeine-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. Consistent with these findings, HRC(S96A) reduced maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake rate to a higher extent than HRC(WT). Furthermore, the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks, which was reduced by HRC(WT), was increased by mutant HRC(S96A) under resting conditions although there were no spontaneous Ca(2+) waves under stress conditions. However, expression of the HRC(S96A) genetic variant in cardiomyocytes from a rat model of postmyocardial infarction heart failure induced dramatic disturbances of rhythmic Ca(2+) transients. These findings indicate that the HRC Ser96Ala variant increases the propensity of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves in the stressed failing heart, suggesting a link between this genetic variant and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in human carriers.
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ABSTRACT: Heart disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. Current therapies aim at treating the symptoms rather than the subcellular mechanisms, underlying the etiology and pathological remodeling in heart failure. A universal characteristic, contributing to the decreased contractile performance in human and experimental failing hearts, is impaired calcium sequestration into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). SR calcium uptake is mediated by a Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2), whose activity is reversibly regulated by phospholamban (PLN). Dephosphorylated PLN is an inhibitor of SERCA and phosphorylation of PLN relieves this inhibition. However, the initial simple view of a PLN/SERCA regulatory complex has been modified by our recent identification of SUMO, S100 and the histidine-rich Ca-binding protein as regulators of SERCA activity. In addition, PLN activity is regulated by 2 phosphoproteins, the inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase 1 and the small heat shock protein 20, which affect the overall SERCA-mediated Ca-transport. This review will highlight the regulatory mechanisms of cardiac contractility by the multimeric SERCA/PLN-ensemble and the potential for new therapeutic avenues targeting this complex by using small molecules and gene transfer methods.Circulation Research 06/2012; 110(12):1646-60. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac calsequestrin (Casq2) is the major Ca2+ binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is the principle Ca2+ storage organelle of cardiac muscle. During the last decade, experimental studies have provided new concepts on the role of Casq2 in the regulation of cardiac muscle Ca2+ handling. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding for cardiac calsequestrin, CASQ2, cause a rare but severe form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Here, we review the physiology of Casq2 in cardiac Ca2+ handling and discuss pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to CPVT caused by CASQ2 mutations. We also describe the clinical aspects of CPVT and provide an update of its contemporary clinical management.Pediatric Cardiology 03/2012; 33(6):959-67. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A human genetic variant (Ser96Ala) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) histidine-rich Ca(2+)-binding (HRC) protein has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the precise mechanisms affecting SR function and leading to arrhythmias remain elusive. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of human Ala96 HRC or Ser96 HRC in the null background to assess function in absence of endogenous protein. Ala96 HRC decreased (25% to 30%) cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca(2+) kinetics compared with Ser96 HRC in the absence of any structural or histological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of Ca(2+) waves was significantly higher (10-fold), although SR Ca(2+) load was reduced (by 27%) in Ala96 HRC cells. The underlying mechanisms involved diminished interaction of Ala96 HRC with triadin, affecting ryanodine receptor (RyR) stability. Indeed, the open probability of RyR, assessed by use of ryanodine binding, was significantly increased. Accordingly, stress conditions (5 Hz plus isoproterenol) induced aftercontractions (65% in Ala96 versus 12% in Ser96) and delayed afterdepolarizations (70% in Ala96 versus 20% in Ser96). The increased SR Ca(2+) leak was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation (1.6-fold) of RyR at Ser2814 by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Accordingly, inclusion of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93 prevented Ser2814 phosphorylation and partially reversed the increases in Ca(2+) spark frequency and wave production. Parallel in vivo studies revealed ventricular ectopy on short-term isoproterenol challenge and increased (4-fold) propensity to arrhythmias, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, after myocardial infarction in Ala96 HRC mice. These findings suggest that aberrant SR Ca(2+) release and increased susceptibility to delayed afterdepolarizations underlie triggered arrhythmic activity in human Ala96 HRC carriers.Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(5):e000460.