Article

4-1BB signaling synergizes with programmed death ligand 1 blockade to augment CD8 T cell responses during chronic viral infection.

Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2011; 187(4):1634-42. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1100077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have identified the inhibitory role that the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway plays during chronic infection. Blockade of this pathway results in rescue of viral-specific CD8 T cells, as well as reduction of viral loads in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We tested the effect of combining PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade with an agonistic regimen that induces 4-1BB costimulation during chronic LCMV infection. There is a boosting effect in the rescue of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses after dual treatment with PD-L1 blockade and 4-1BB agonistic Abs when the amount and timing of 4-1BB costimulation are carefully controlled. When PD-L1-blocking Abs are given together with a single low dose of anti-4-1BB agonistic Abs, there is an enhanced and stable expansion of viral-specific CD8 T cells. Conversely, when blocking Abs to PD-L1 are given with a repetitive high dose of anti-4-1BB, there is an initial synergistic expansion of viral-specific CD8 T cells by day 7, followed by dramatic apoptosis by day 14. Viral control paralleled CD8 T cell kinetics after dual treatment. By day 7 posttreatment, viral titers were lower in both of the combined regimens (compared with PD-L1 blockade alone). However, whereas the high dose of anti-4-1BB plus PD-L1 blockade resulted in rebound of viral titers to original levels, the low dose of anti-4-1BB plus PD-L1 blockade resulted in a stable reduction of viral loads. These findings demonstrate the importance of carefully manipulating the balance between activating and inhibitory signals to enhance T cell responses during chronic infection.

1 Follower
 · 
129 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immune system cannot be continuously reactivated throughout the lifetime of an organism; there is a finite point at which repeated antigenic challenge leads to the loss of lymphocyte function or the cells themselves. Antigen-specific T cells can be compromised in two ways through the distinct processes of replicative senescence and exhaustion. Senescence is initiated by a DNA damage response whereas exhaustion triggers inhibitory receptors to dampen the immune response. These two distinct pathways not only differ in their initiation but also growing evidence suggests that their biogenergetics is also different. Here, we review recent findings uncovering the metabolism of these unique states.
    Frontiers in Immunology 09/2014; 5:468. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00468
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Downstream of costimulatory pathways, complexes of transcription factors NFAT and AP-1 promote effector T cell differentiation. In this issue of Immunity, Martinez et al. report that monomeric NFAT binding in the absence of a transcriptional partner induces a gene expression program involved in T cell exhaustion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Immunity 02/2015; 42(2):203-5. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.023 · 19.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exhaustion of chronically stimulated CD8(+) T cells is a significant obstacle to immune control of chronic infections or tumors. Although coinhibitory checkpoint blockade with anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) Ab can restore functions to exhausted T cell populations, recovery is often incomplete and dependent upon the pool size of a quiescent T-bet(high) subset that expresses lower levels of PD-1. In a model in which unhelped, HY-specific CD8(+) T cells gradually lose function following transfer to male bone marrow transplantation recipients, we have explored the effect of shifting the balance away from coinhibition and toward costimulation by combining anti-PD-L1 with agonistic Abs to the TNFR superfamily members, OX40 and CD27. Several weeks following T cell transfer, both agonistic Abs, but especially anti-CD27, demonstrated synergy with anti-PD-L1 by enhancing CD8(+) T cell proliferation and effector cytokine generation. Anti-CD27 and anti-PD-L1 synergized by downregulating the expression of multiple quiescence-related genes concomitant with a reduced frequency of T-bet(high) cells within the exhausted population. However, in the presence of persistent Ag, the CD8(+) T cell response was not sustained and the overall size of the effector cytokine-producing pool eventually contracted to levels below that of controls. Thus, CD27-mediated costimulation can synergize with coinhibitory checkpoint blockade to switch off molecular programs for quiescence in exhausted T cell populations, but at the expense of losing precursor cells required to maintain a response. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
25 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014