Getting priorities straight: Risk assessment and decision-making in the improvement of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs
School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Medical Biology Centre, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AL, Northern Ireland, UK.The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.76). 08/2011; 189(2):147-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.012
The issue of inherited disorders in pedigree dogs is not a recent phenomenon and reports of suspected genetic defects associated with breeding practices date back to Charles Darwin's time. In recent years, much information on the array of inherited defects has been assimilated and the true extent of the problem has come to light. Historically, the direction of research funding in the field of canine genetic disease has been largely influenced by the potential transferability of findings to human medicine, economic benefit and importance of dogs for working purposes. More recently, the argument for a more canine welfare-orientated approach has been made, targeting research efforts at the alleviation of the most suffering in the greatest number of animals. A method of welfare risk assessment was initially developed as a means of objectively comparing, and thus setting priorities for, different welfare problems. The method has been applied to inherited disorders in pedigree dogs to investigate which disorders have the greatest welfare impact and which breeds are most affected. Work in this field has identified 396 inherited disorders in the top 50 most popular breeds in the UK. This article discusses how the results of welfare risk assessment for inherited disorders can be used to develop strategies for improving the health and welfare of dogs in the long term. A new risk assessment criterion, the Breed-Disorder Welfare Impact Score (BDWIS), which takes into account the proportion of life affected by a disorder, is introduced. A set of health and welfare goals is proposed and strategies for achieving these goals are highlighted, along with potential rate-determining factors at each step.
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- "They also affect the evolution of genetic diversity within a given breed, as well as risks linked to the dissemination of genetic disorders. Some of those practices and their effects are linked to selection goals and breed standards (Higgins and Nicholas, 2008; Asher et al., 2009; Collins et al., 2011) but will not be considered further here since pedigree analyses mainly deal with loci that are not selected. However, the impact of some of these practices (e.g. "
ABSTRACT: Pedigree analysis constitutes a classical approach for the study of the evolution of genetic diversity, genetic structure, history and breeding practices within a given breed. As a consequence of selection pressure, management in closed populations and historical bottlenecks, many dog breeds have experienced considerable inbreeding and show (on the basis of a pedigree approach) comparable diversity loss compared to other domestic species. This evolution is linked to breeding practices such as the overuse of popular sires or mating between related animals. The popular sire phenomenon is the most problematic breeding practice, since it has also led to the dissemination of a large number of inherited defects. The practice should be limited by taking measures such as restricting the number of litters (or offspring) per breeding animal.The Veterinary Journal 08/2011; 189(2):177-82. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.016 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Entropion is an inversion of the eyelid margin causing lashes or external hairs to rub against the ocular surface. If uncorrected, discomfort, ocular damage, increased eye infection rates, and potential blindness can occur. Entropion affects many mammalian species, can be expressed in both upper and lower eyelids, and may be bilateral. Treatment includes antibiotic injection, physical reformation using Michel clips, and/or surgical eyelid reduction. These treatments increase production costs, raise potential animal welfare concerns, and are incentives to reduce the frequency of this undesirable trait. Entropion has been reported in 1% to 80% of sheep, depending on the breed composition, which supports a genetic basis in sheep. Discovering specific genes associated with entropion could facilitate development of genetic markers to select against entropion, and may improve understanding of developmental pathways. Thus, a genome-wide association scan was performed with 1,000 sheep genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 marker set designed by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium. Entropion status was recorded within 24 hours of birth and overall prevalence was 5.65% in the 3 breeds of sheep (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet) evaluated. The inclusion of substantial numbers of animals from multiple breeds improved the odds for detection of true positive associated genomic regions in multiple genetic backgrounds. Four genomic regions were found to be associated with entropion. Further evaluation of these regions is needed to identify underlying causal mutations, which would be useful as genetic markers for sheep producers.International Plant and Animal Genome Conference XX 2012;
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ABSTRACT: The GDE criterion is based on the estimation of the Gerschgorin disks' radii where the disks are separated in two distinct sets: one associated to the signal sources, the other related to the noise. We aim at modifying that criterion into a new one called SGDE by using the sum of the disks' radii. Besides, the SGDE criterion is modified with a simple deflation on the sum of the Gerschgorin radii to obtain a better estimation with sources of different power. We also suggest applying a deflation method to the covariance matrix before using the criteria based on the Gerschgorin radii. The transformed Gerschgorin radii can be connected to the least-squares through the transformed cross-correlation vector. So, two new criteria are put forward on the same principle as the SGDE criterion. These criteria can be applied in many situations: coloured or white noise, sources of different powerAcoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1998. Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on; 06/1998
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