Exophytic ependymoma of the thoracic spine.
ABSTRACT Exophytic ependymomas of the spinal cord are very rare outside the filum or conus region. We present a patient with a thoracic spinal cord intradural extramedullary and intramedullary, World Health Organization grade II ependymoma. Gross total resection of the extramedullary component with subtotal resection of the intramedullary tumor was achieved, since there was no clear distinction between cord and tumor. The patient received postoperative external beam radiotherapy for residual tumor, and at a 2-year follow-up he is ambulatory without evidence of tumor recurrence.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs. pharmacological amounts of insulin and the use of low-dose therapy by various routes in adults and later in children. Subsequent studies evaluated phosphate and bicarbonate therapy, lipid metabolism, ketosis-prone type 2 patients, and use of rapid-acting insulin analogs as well as leptin status, cardiac risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and the mechanism of activation of T lymphocytes in hyperglycemic crises. The information garnered from these studies resulted in the creation of the 2001 American Diabetes Association (ADA) technical review on DKA and HHS as well as the ADA Position and Consensus Paper on the therapy for hyperglycemic crises. Areas of future research include prospective randomized studies to do the following: 1) establish the efficacy of bicarbonate therapy in DKA for a pH less than 6.9; 2) establish the need for a bolus insulin dose in the initial therapy of DKA; 3) determine the pathophysiological mechanisms for the absence of ketosis in HHS; 4) investigate the reasons for elevated proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk factors; and 5) evaluate the efficacy and cost benefit of using sc regular insulin vs. more expensive insulin analogs on the general ward for the treatment of DKA.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 06/2008; 93(5):1541-52. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine trends in death rates for hyperglycemic crisis (diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state) among adults with diabetes in the U.S. from 1985 to 2002. Deaths with hyperglycemic crisis as the underlying cause were identified from national mortality data. Death rates were calculated using estimates of adults with diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey as the denominator and age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. population. The trends from 1985 to 2002 were tested using joinpoint regression analysis. Deaths due to hyperglycemic crisis dropped from 2,989 in 1985 to 2,459 in 2002. During the time period, age-adjusted death rates decreased from 42.4 to 23.8 per 100,000 adults with diabetes (4.4% decrease per year, P for trend <0.01). Death rates declined in all age-groups, with the greatest decrease occurring among individuals aged > or =65 years. Age-adjusted death rates fell for all race-sex subgroups, with black men experiencing the smallest decline. About one-fifth of deaths occurred at home or on arrival at the hospital, and the death rates for hyperglycemic crisis occurring at these places declined only modestly over time (2.1% decrease per year, P for trend = 0.049). Overall death rates due to hyperglycemic crisis among adults with diabetes have declined in the U.S. However, scope for further improvement remains, especially to further reduce death rates among black men and to prevent deaths occurring at home.Diabetes Care 10/2006; 29(9):2018-22. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic emergencies associated with ketoacidosis (DKA) and a hyperosmolar, hyperglycaemic state (HHS) are both acute life-threatening metabolic disturbances. Traditionally, DKA and HHS have been classified as distinct entities but there is evidence to suggest that patients can present with elements of both conditions. To examine the presentation profiles, mortality rates and prognostic factors associated with a fatal outcome for diabetic patients admitted with ketoacidosis and/or hyperosmolarity. A retrospective analysis of 312 admissions to an Australian tertiary referral hospital between 1986 and 1999. Of the patients surveyed, DKA was the diagnosis for 171 presentations (55%), HHS was the diagnosis for 47 presentations (15%) and combined DKA and HHS (DKA-HHS) was diagnosed for 94 presentations (30%). Age at presentation for DKA patients (33+/-1.2 years) was significantly less (P< 0.01) than DKA-HHS patients (44+/-2.4 years). This, in turn, was significantly less (P < 0.01) than HHS patients (69+/-1.7 years). There were 15 deaths for the 312 presentations, resulting in an overall mortality rate of 4.8%. Combined mortality rates according to age at presentation were: (i) 0/134 for patients aged <35 years, (ii) 1/85 (1.2%) for patients aged 35-55 years and (iii) 14/93 (15.0%) for patients aged >55 years. For the three categories of diabetic emergencies, mortality rates were: (i) 2/171 (1.2%) for DKA, (ii) 5/94 (5.3%) for DKA-HHS and (iii) 8/47 (17%) for HHS. For all presentations associated with ketoacidosis - regardless of the degree of hyperosmolarity - the mortality rate was 7/264 (2.7%), however for all presentations with hyperosmolarity regardless of the degree of acidosis - the mortality rate was 13/141 (9.2%). When the associations between age, category of diabetic emergency, serum osmolarity and various other biochemical parameters with mortality were assessed by logistic regression analysis, age and the degree of hyperosmolarity were found to be the most powerful predictors of a fatal outcome. In particular, patients aged >65 years presenting with a serum osmolarity >375 mOsmol/L were at greatest risk. However, in a multivariate analysis only age emerged as a significant independent predictor of mortality (P < 0.01). The mixed state of ketoacidosis and hyperosmolarity was observed in 30% of presentations for diabetic hyperglycaemic emergencies. Although age and degree of hyperosmolarity both influenced mortality rates, only age was found to be an independent predictor of mortality. The mortality rate for diabetic emergencies associated with ketoacidosis remained low, in keeping with other studies. By contrast, the mortality rate for diabetic emergencies associated with a hyperosmolar state remained considerably higher. This higher mortality will most likely persist because deaths associated with a hyperosmolar state were in elderly patients with significant comorbidity.Internal Medicine Journal 08/2002; 32(8):379-85. · 1.82 Impact Factor