Clinicopathologic significance of DNA mismatch repair protein defects and endometrial cancer in women 40years of age and younger.
ABSTRACT The hereditary basis of endometrial cancer is apparent in young women with endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to examine risk factors and outcomes in patients 40 years of age and younger with endometrial cancer.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 40 years or less who were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma between 1/93 and 5/08. Clinical and pathologic data were extracted from medical records. Paraffin-embedded slides from hysterectomy specimens were obtained and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry was performed. Cases were analyzed according to the presence of DNA MMR protein defects. Standard two-sided statistical tests were performed.
Of the 56 identified patients, the median age was 36 years (range, 24-40). The majority of the endometrial carcinomas were of endometrioid histology (91%), stage I (71%), and FIGO grade 1 (59%). Abnormal DNA MMR was found in 9 cases (16%). Cases with abnormal DNA MMR had lower body mass index (BMI) (P=0.05), and had a family history suggestive of Lynch syndrome (P=0.001). Tumors were more likely to have advanced stage disease (P<0.001), be high grade (P<0.001), have deep myometrial invasion (P<0.001), and have lymphovascular invasion (P=0.002). Cases with abnormal DNA MMR had significantly worse overall survival (P=0.028) and progression-free survival (P=0.042).
Endometrial cancer is rare in women aged 40 years or less. In this group of patients, loss of DNA MMR was associated with lower BMI, worse clinicopathologic factors, and worse outcome. These results may have implications when young women diagnosed with endometrial cancer are counseled regarding prognosis.
Article: Genetics of endometrial cancer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Women who report a history of endometrial cancer in a first-degree relative are at increased risk of endometrial cancer, with a hazard ratio of 1.5 to 2.0. Only a minority of patients with familial endometrial cancer have a recognized cancer syndrome. Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic syndrome associated with endometrial cancer and a marked increased risk of colon cancer. Cowden syndrome is a rare condition resulting from a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog. The risk for endometrial cancer is about five times higher in women with Cowden syndrome than in the general population. Recently, a novel germline mutation in the POLD1 gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase δ was described in several families with multiple cases of endometrial cancer. This mutation is also associated with colorectal cancer. The association between BRCA1 mutations and endometrial cancer has been investigated in several studies; it appears that the risk of endometrial cancer is restricted to women with a history of tamoxifen exposure. In recent years, research has focused on genetic polymorphisms that are associated with endometrial cancer risk. Although many polymorphisms have been identified, their clinical significance is unclear and they have not been adapted for clinical practice.Familial Cancer 05/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with hereditary cancer need an integrated support system. A recently launched project was evaluated in terms of its efficacy in screening patients with hereditary cancer at the gynecologic service. The project team comprised gynecologists, surgeons, medical geneticists, and certified genetic counselors (CGCs) in our hospital. At the gynecologic service, a newly developed self-administered family history questionnaire (SAFHQ) was given to patients with ovarian, endometrial, or breast cancer as well as a history of multiple cancers. After an interview, a CGC constructed a pedigree and evaluated the risk for hereditary cancer. Patients at risk were recommended by a gynecologist to receive further genetic counseling at the Department of Genetics according to the modified Bethesda criteria, Amsterdam II criteria, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines 2012 for breast-ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). The numbers of newly screened patients were compared before and after the project launch. The SAFHQ was administered to 131 patients and 106 (81 %) pedigrees were constructed between August 2012 and July 2013. The number of newly screened patients according to the Bethesda criteria was 4 and 8 at 10 years before and 1 year after the project launch, respectively. Two and 31 patients met the NCCN criteria for HBOC excluding ovarian cancer alone, respectively, at these 2 time points. Of 54 patients who were recommended to undergo further counseling, 10 (19 %) visited the Department of Genetics. After the launch of an integrated support system, the number of patients with hereditary cancers who were screened increased. The gynecologic service played a pivotal role in patient and family care.International Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; 19(6). · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have revealed DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations are closely related with carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer; however the impact of MMR protein expression on prognosis is not determined. Correlations between MMR-related protein expression and clinicopathological factors of endometrial cancers are analyzed in the present study.Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 10/2014; 26(1). · 1.60 Impact Factor