To report 6-month outcomes of a prospective, randomized study comparing the efficacy and safety between low-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.
Prospective, randomized, single-center pilot study.
Sixteen eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were randomized to receive either low-fluence PDT or intravitreal injections of ranibizumab: 8 eyes in the low-fluence PDT group and 8 in the ranibizumab group. Rescue treatment was considered if subretinal fluid was sustained after completion of primary treatment: low-fluence PDT for the ranibizumab group and ranibizumab injection for the low-fluence PDT group. Main outcome measures were excess foveal thickness, resolution of subretinal fluid, choroidal perfusion on indocyanine green angiography, and best-corrected visual acuity.
At 3 months, the mean excess foveal thickness was reduced from 74.1 ± 56.0 μm to -35.4 ± 44.5 μm in the low-fluence PDT group (P = .017) and from 26.3 ± 50.6 μm to -23.1 ± 56.5 μm in the ranibizumab group (P = .058). After a single session of PDT, 6 eyes (75%) in the low-fluence PDT group achieved complete resolution of subretinal fluid and reduction of choroidal hyperpermeability, whereas 2 (25%) eyes in the ranibizumab group achieved this after consecutive ranibizumab injections. Four eyes (50%) in the ranibizumab group underwent additional low-fluence PDT and accomplished complete resolution. At 3 months, significant improvement of best-corrected visual acuity was not demonstrated in the low-fluence PDT group (P = .075), whereas it was observed in the ranibizumab group (P = .012). However, the tendency toward improvement of best-corrected visual acuity was not maintained.
In terms of anatomic outcomes, the effect of ranibizumab injections was not promising compared with that of low-fluence PDT.
"Several small trials have yielded suggestive results, although their effectiveness has not been confirmed. Bae et al. showed in a small randomized trials that half-fluence PDT may be superior to anti-VEGF agent as a treatment for CSC . Anti-VEGF agents are highly effective in reducing subretinal fluid, reducing extravasation from retinal vessels, and neovascularization, but they may not be sufficient to reduce the hyperpermeability of the choroid in eyes with CSC and PCV. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role played by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) based on an interventional immunology theory.
Eyes with PCV were divided in a masked fashion into those with choroidal hyperpermeability (HP group) and those with normal choroidal permeability (NP group) based on the indocyanine green angiograms. The inter-rater agreement rate was evaluated using Fleiss' kappa. Patients were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab (IVB). The central choroidal thickness and central foveal thickness (CFT) at the baseline and 7 days after the treatment were measured by optical coherence tomography.
Among the 57 consecutive eyes diagnosed with PCV, 42 eyes of 42 patients met the inclusion criteria (21 eyes/HP group vs 21 eyes /NP group). Central choroidal thickness in HP group was significantly thicker than that in the NP group (P < .001, Mann--Whitney U test). The inter-rater agreement was high with a Fleiss' kappa = 0.95, P < .0001. The percentage reduction in the CFT in HP group (14.0%) was significantly less than that in NP group (20.4%; P = .013, Mann--Whitney U test).
Eyes with PCV that are associated with choroidal hyper-permeability may not be strongly associated with VEGF-related pathology, and may not respond favorably to anti-VEGF monotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the time-period characteristics associated with morphologic changes in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using volume scans acquired by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional case series.
Patients underwent visual acuity measurements, fundus examinations, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and SD-OCT volume scans. Patients were classified into 5 categories-acute CSC, early chronic (EC) CSC, late chronic (LC) CSC, sequelae of CSC, or recurrent CSC-according to the chronicity and the recurrence. We investigated the relationship between our classification and the detailed morphologic changes of the retinal pigment epithelium and outer retina that were observed in the SD-OCT images.
A total of 76 eyes from 75 patients were included in this study. Serous retinal detachment was relatively higher in acute CSC. Low to flat pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) were most commonly observed in all stages of CSC, especially in LC CSC, but some semicircular PEDs were occasionally observed in eyes with acute or EC CSC. Retinal dragging with fibrin was most frequently observed in eyes that were in the early stage of acute CSC. A thickened posterior surface of the detached retina was most commonly observed in eyes with acute CSC, whereas a thinned posterior surface of the detached retina was observed in eyes with LC CSC. Hyperreflective dots and subretinal exudates were more commonly observed in eyes with EC and LC CSC than in eyes with acute CSC. In eyes with recurrent CSC, 2 different patterns of SD-OCT findings were observed; these patterns resembled those that were found in either acute CSC or LC CSC.
SD-OCT finding patterns in CSC eyes differ according to the chronicity and the recurrence of the disease. Detailed investigation of the retinal pigment epithelium and outer retina using SD-OCT could be useful for estimating the duration of CSC.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2012; 154(2):366-375.e4. DOI:10.1016/j.ajo.2012.02.031 · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a vision-threatening eye disease with no validated treatment and unknown pathogeny. In CSCR, dilation and leakage of choroid vessels underneath the retina cause subretinal fluid accumulation and retinal detachment. Because glucocorticoids induce and aggravate CSCR and are known to bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), CSCR may be related to inappropriate MR activation. Our aim was to assess the effect of MR activation on rat choroidal vasculature and translate the results to CSCR patients. Intravitreous injection of the glucocorticoid corticosterone in rat eyes induced choroidal enlargement. Aldosterone, a specific MR activator, elicited the same effect, producing choroid vessel dilation -and leakage. We identified an underlying mechanism of this effect: aldosterone upregulated the endothelial vasodilatory K channel KCa2.3. Its blockade prevented aldosterone-induced thickening. To translate these findings, we treated 2 patients with chronic nonresolved CSCR with oral eplerenone, a specific MR antagonist, for 5 weeks, and observed impressive and rapid resolution of retinal detachment and choroidal vasodilation as well as improved visual acuity. The benefit was maintained 5 months after eplerenone withdrawal. Our results identify MR signaling as a pathway controlling choroidal vascular bed relaxation and provide a pathogenic link with human CSCR, which suggests that blockade of MR could be used therapeutically to reverse choroid vasculopathy.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2012; 122(7):2672-9. DOI:10.1172/JCI61427 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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