Prolonged stimulation of FRTL-5 thyroid cells with cAMP-generating agents including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or cAMP analogues potentiates tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 triggered by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, leading to enhancement of IGF-I-dependent proliferation. Because we identified HSP90 as an IRS-2-interacting protein, the roles of HSP90 in potentiation of IGF signals through IRS-2 were investigated. We found that prolonged dibutyryl cAMP treatment induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-2. Using a specific inhibitor of HSP90 chaperone activity, geldanamycin, or small interfering RNA against HSP90, we showed that HSP90 mediates cAMP-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-2. Furthermore, inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin during dibutyryl cAMP pretreatment of cells for 24h suppressed cAMP-dependent potentiation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2 induced by IGF-I. Taking together, we conclude that HSP90 interacting with IRS-2 mediates cAMP-dependent serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-2 via its chaperone activity, leading to potentiation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-2 induced by IGF-I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling contributes to the pathological progression of diabetes, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's diseases (HD). Despite their prevalence, there are limited therapeutic options available for the treatment of these neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, establishing a link between insulin/IGF-I and the pathoetiology of these diseases may provide alternative approaches toward their management. Many of the heat shock proteins (Hsps) are well-known molecular chaperones that solubilize and clear damaged proteins and protein aggregates. Recent studies suggest that modulating Hsps may represent a promising therapeutic avenue for improving insulin and IGF-I signaling. Pharmacological induction of the heat shock response (HSR) may intersect with insulin/IGF-I signaling to improve aspects of neurodegenerative phenotypes. Herein, we review the intersection between Hsps and the insulin/IGF systems under normal and pathological conditions. The discussion will emphasize the potential of non-toxic HSR inducers as viable therapeutic agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the cell, proteins interact within a network in which a small number of proteins are highly connected nodes or hubs. A disturbance in the hub proteins usually has a higher impact on the cell physiology than a disturbance in poorly connected nodes. In eukaryotes, the cytosolic Hsp90 is considered to be a hub protein as it interacts with molecular chaperones and co-chaperones, and has key regulatory proteins as clients, such as transcriptional factors, protein kinases and hormone receptors. The large number of Hsp90 partners suggests that Hsp90 is involved in very important functions, such as signaling, proteostasis and epigenetics. Some of these functions are dysregulated in cancer, making Hsp90 a potential target for therapeutics. The number of Hsp90 interactors appears to be so large that a precise answer to the question of how many proteins interact with this chaperone has no definitive answer yet, not even if the question refers to specific Hsp90s as one of the human cytosolic forms. Here we review the major chaperones and co-chaperones that interact with cytosolic Hsp90s, highlighting the latest findings regarding client proteins and the role that posttranslational modifications have on the function and interactions of these molecular chaperones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.
Journal of proteomics 01/2012; 75(10):2790-802. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2011.12.028 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) play central roles in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling and mediate a variety of their bioactivities. IRSs are tyrosine-phosphorylated by activated insulin receptor/IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase in response to insulin/IGF, and are recognized by signaling molecules possessing the SH2 domain such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the activation of downstream pathways. Recent studies have suggested that degradation of IRSs by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway leads to impaired insulin/IGF signaling, but the precise mechanism underlying the process is still unclear. In this study, we identified deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific protease 7 (USP7) as an IRS-2-interacting protein and demonstrated that deubiquitinase activity of USP7 plays important roles in IRS-2 stabilization through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In addition, insulin treatment dissociated USP7 from IRS-2, leading to degradation of IRS-2. This dissociation was prevented by treatment with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that insulin activation of the PI3K pathway leads to dissociation of IRS-2 from USP7 and IRS-2 degradation. We obtained similar results for IRS-1 in cells treated with insulin and for IRS-2 in cells treated with IGF-I. Taken together, this is the first report demonstrating that USP7 is an IRS-1/2 deubiquitinating enzyme forming a negative feedback loop in insulin/IGF signaling.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2012; 423(1):122-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.05.093 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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