The ultrasonic degradation of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) in aqueous solution with CCl4 enhancement was studied. The effects of operating parameters such as CCl4 dosage, ultrasonic power, media temperature, the initial concentration of p-NP and initial pH value of the aqueous solution on the degradation of p-NP were investigated, and the enhancement mechanism of CCl4 for p-NP sonolysis was also discussed. The results showed that the sonochemical degradation of p-NP was obviously enhanced by adding CCl4. It attributed to the increase ·OH radicals concentration in the presence of CCl4 as a hydrogen atom scavenger, and the formation of some oxidizing agents such as free chlorine and chlorine-containing radicals. The degradation of p-NP follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The degradation rate of p-NP increased with decreasing the temperature, the initial pH value of the solution and decreasing the initial concentration of p-NP. It was also found that p-NP can be mineralized in this process.
"There was no significant difference in kinetic constants depending on power densities. Though it is normally expected that increase in the power density leads to enhanced cavitational effects and free radicals  , several studies have reported insignificant effect of power density in US    and this is assumed to be due to an insignificant chemical effect at low frequency . The effect of ultrasonic power density on PCP degradation using EC/US is illustrated in Fig. 3B. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of ultrasonic conditions and physicochemical properties on the synergistic degradation in synthetic solution were investigated. A wide range of ultrasound frequencies, including 35, 170, 300, 500 and 700 kHz, and ultrasonic power densities, including 11.3, 22.5 and 31.5 W/L were used. It was revealed that the physical effect of ultrasound plays a major role in synergistic mechanism and 35 kHz was found to be the most effective frequency due to its more vigorous physical effect induced by high implosive energy released from collapse of cavitation bubbles. The highest ultrasonic power density (31.5 W/L) showed the highest synergy index as it increases the number of cavitation bubbles and the energy released when they collapse. The synergy indexes of various substituted phenols under identical condition were investigated. These results were correlated with physicochemical properties, namely octanol water partition coefficient (Log K-ow), water solubility (S-w), Henry's law constant (K-H) and water diffusivity (D-w). Among these parameters, Log K-ow and D-w were found to have substantial effects on synergy indexes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A green and simple approach to assembling of 2-amino-4,8-dihydropyrano[3,2-b]pyran-3-carbonitrile scaffolds via three-component reaction of kojic acid, malononitrile, and aromatic aldehydes in aqueous media under ultrasound irradiation is described. The combinatorial synthesis was achieved for this methodology with applying ultrasound irradiation while making use of water as green solvent. In comparison to conventional methods, experimental simplicity, good functional group tolerance, excellent yields, short routine, and selectivity without the need for a transition metal or base catalyst are prominent features of this green procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method and subsequently coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) via silanization reaction. Grafting of chlorosulfuric acid on the amino-functionalized Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles afforded sulfamic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (SA-MNPs). SA-MNPs was found to be a mild and effective solid acid catalyst for the efficient, one-pot, three-component synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles under ultrasound irradiation. This protocol afforded corresponding imidazoles in shorter reaction durations, and in high yields. This green procedure has many obvious advantages compared to those reported in the previous literatures, including avoiding the use of harmful catalysts, easy and quick isolation of the products, excellent yields, short routine, and simplicity of the methodology.
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