Altered striatal dopamine release following a sub-acute exposure to manganese.
ABSTRACT Certain metals that are necessary for regulating biological function at trace levels hold the potential to become neurotoxic when in excess. Specifically, chronic exposure to high levels of manganese leads to manganism, a neurological disorder that exhibits both motor and learning deficits similar to Parkinson's disease. Since Parkinson's disease symptomatology is primarily attributed to dopamine neurodegeneration in the striatum, dopamine system dysfunction has been implicated in the onset of manganism. In this study, dopamine system function in the dorsal striatum was evaluated in C57Bl/6 mice, 1, 7, and 21 days following repeated injections of manganese(II) chloride (50 mg/kg, subcutaneous) intermittently for 7 days. Tissue content analysis confirmed the presence of persistent accumulation of manganese in the striatum up to 21 days after cessation of treatment. In vitro fast scan cyclic voltammetry examined the effect of sub-acute manganese on electrically stimulated dopamine release and uptake in the striatum. While no difference was observed in uptake rates following manganese treatment, dopamine release was attenuated on days 7 and 21, compared to control levels. Basal levels of extracellular dopamine determined by the zero net flux microdialysis method were significantly lower in manganese-treated mice at 7 days post-treatment. On the other hand, potassium stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine were attenuated at all three time points. Together, these findings indicate that repeated manganese exposure has long-term effects on the regulation of exocytotic dopamine release in the striatum, which may be involved in the mechanism underlying manganese toxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, but excess exposure leads to accumulation in biological tissues, including the brain. Chronically high Mn levels in the brain are neurotoxic and can result in a progressive, irreversible neurological disorder known as manganism. Manganism has signs and symptoms similar to, but distinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, which include both psychological and motor disturbances. Evidence suggests that Mn exposure impacts neurotransmitter levels in the brain. However, it remains unclear if subacute, low-level Mn exposure resulted in alterations in neurotransmitter systems with concomitant behavioral deficits. The current study used high performance liquid chromatography to quantify neurotransmitter levels in rat striatum (STR), substantia nigra (SN), and hippocampus (HP). Subacute Mn exposure via i.p. injection of 15mg Mn/kg as MnCl2 caused significantly increased dopamine (DA) levels in the STR. The enhancement was accompanied by significantly elevated levels of the DA metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the STR. In addition, levels of HVA were significantly increased in the SN and HP. These data indicate that subacute, low-level Mn exposure disrupts multiple neurotransmitter systems in the rat brain which may be responsible, in part, for observed locomotor deficits.NeuroToxicology 08/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Excessive manganese (Mn) induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the relationship between them during Mn neurotoxicity has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable role of melatonin (MLT) against Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss as a result of antagonizing oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control, MnCl2, low MLT + MnCl2, median MLT + MnCl2, and high MLT + MnCl2. Administration of MnCl2 (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks significantly induced hypokinesis, dopaminergic neurons degeneration and loss, neuronal ultrastructural damage, and apoptosis in the substantia nigra and the striatum. These conditions were caused in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde accumulation, and dysfunction of the nonenzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) antioxidative defense systems. Mn-induced neuron degeneration, astrocytes, and microglia activation contribute to the changes of oxidative stress markers. Dopamine (DA) depletion and downregulation of DA transporter and receptors were also found after Mn administration, this might also trigger motor dysfunction and neurons loss. Pretreatment with MLT prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inhibited the interaction between them. As a result, pretreatment with MLT significantly alleviated Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss. In conclusion, Mn treatment resulted in motor dysfunction and neuronal loss, possibly involving an interaction between oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra and the striatum. Pretreatment with MLT attenuated Mn-induced neurotoxicity by means of its antioxidant properties and promotion of the DA system.Molecular neurobiology. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The effect of resveratrol was studied on the life span and motor activity of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese (Mn). Two days after emerging from the pupa, male wild type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM Mn. Thereafter, Drosophila were divided into six groups of 300 flies each: (1) the flies remained treated with Mn; (2) began treatment with 0.43 mM resveratrol (Mn-resveratrol group); (3) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); (4) simultaneously fed with Mn and resveratrol (Mn + resveratrol group). In addition, a control (5) with no treatment and another group (6) fed only with resveratrol after emerging from the pupa were included. All Mn-treated flies (group 1) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in the resveratrol group was 91 ± 0.33 days (mean ± S.E.M.) and in Mn-resveratrol flies was 83 ± 2 days. These two values were significantly higher than those detected in the control (5) and Mn-no treatment (group 3) flies whose life span were 68 ± 0.33 and 67 ± 2.31 days, respectively. The Mn + resveratrol-fed flies had a markedly higher life span (31 ± 1.53 days) than Mn-fed flies (23 ± 0.88 days). In the flies that received Mn (Mn and Mn + resveratrol groups), the motor activity decreased significantly with respect to control (groups 5) and the Mn–resveratrol and resveratrol groups. In conclusion, resveratrol increased significantly the life span of Mn-treated D. melanogaster.Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 01/2012;