The dopamine receptors mediating inhibition of the sympathetic vasopressor outflow in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the D(2) -like type.
ABSTRACT This study investigated in pithed rats whether dopamine can inhibit the sympathetic vasopressor outflow and analysed the pharmacological profile of the receptors involved. Male Wistar pithed rats were pre-treated with intravenous (i.v.) bolus injections of gallamine (25 mg/kg) and desipramine (50 μg/kg). The vasopressor responses to electrical stimulation of the sympathetic vasopressor outflow (0.03-3 Hz; 50 V and 2 msec.) were analysed before and during i.v. continuous infusions of the agonists dopamine (endogenous ligand), SKF-38393 (D(1) -like) or quinpirole (D(2) -like). If inhibition was produced by any agonist, then its capability to inhibit the vasopressor responses to i.v. bolus injections of exogenous noradrenaline (0.03-3 μg/kg) was also investigated. Dopamine (3-100 μg/kg min.) inhibited the vasopressor responses to both electrical stimulation and noradrenaline. In contrast, SKF-38393 (10-100 μg/kg min.) failed to inhibit the vasopressor responses to electrical stimulation; whereas quinpirole (0.1-30 μg/kg min.) inhibited the vasopressor responses to electrical stimulation but not those to noradrenaline. The sympatho-inhibition by quinpirole (1 μg/kg min.) remained unaltered after i.v. SCH 23390 (300 and 1000 μg/kg; D(1) -like receptor antagonist), but was abolished after i.v. raclopride (1000 μg/kg; D(2) -like receptor antagonist). These doses of antagonists did not modify per se the sympathetically-induced vasopressor responses. In conclusion, quinpirole-induced inhibition of the sympathetic vasopressor outflow is primarily mediated by activation of dopamine D(2) -like receptors.
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ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that N,N-di-n-propyl-dopamine (dopamine analogue) decreased heart rate in rats through stimulation of dopamine receptors. Nevertheless, the role of prejunctional dopamine D1/2-like receptors or even α2-adrenoceptors to mediate cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by dopamine remains unclear. Hence, this study identified the pharmacological profile of the cardiac sympatho-inhibition to dopamine in pithed rats. Male Wistar rats were pithed and prepared to stimulate the cardiac sympathetic outflow or to receive i.v. bolus of exogenous noradrenaline. I.v. continuous infusions of dopamine (endogenous ligand) or quinpirole (D2-like agonist) dose-dependently inhibited the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation, but not those to exogenous noradrenaline. In contrast, SKF-38393 (100 μg/kg∙min, D1-like agonist) failed to modify both of these responses. The sympatho-inhibition to dopamine (1.8 μg/kg∙min) or quinpirole (100 μg/kg∙min): i) remained unaltered after saline or the antagonists SCH-23390 (D1-like, 300 μg/kg) and rauwolscine (α2-adrenoceptors, 300 μg/kg); and ii) was significantly antagonized by raclopride (D2-like, 300 μg/kg). These antagonists, at the above doses, failed to modify the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses. The above results suggest that the inhibition of the cardiac sympathetic outflow to dopamine and quinpirole is primarily mediated by prejunctional D2-like receptors but not D1-like receptors or α2-adrenoceptors.Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 11/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Dopamine agonists (DAs) are frequently used to treat early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. They have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of motor symptoms and for delaying levodopa-induced dyskinesias. However, their utilization is limited by the risk of adverse drug reactions, some of which affect the cardiovascular system. Recently, the US FDA identified a possible association between exposure to pramipexole and the risk of heart failure. Areas covered: This article begins by reviewing the pharmacodynamic and cardiovascular effects of DAs on PD patients. Pharmacoepidemiological studies about the association between DAs and heart failure are then evaluated. Expert opinion: Four nested case-control studies were reviewed. In general, results showed higher heart failure risk following use of pramipexole or cabergoline. Although the effects of cabergoline may be explained by the induction of cardiac valve fibrosis, the basis for the significantly increased risk associated with pramipexole is unclear. It remains to be determined if these are dose-related effects, at what point they occur during the course of treatment, and if the risk is the same for all patients irrespective of other potential modifying factors, such as age and sex.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 03/2014; 13(3):351-60. · 2.62 Impact Factor