Impact of maternal fasting during Ramadan on fetal Doppler parameters, maternal lipid levels and neonatal outcomes.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fasting may cause changes in maternal lipid profile, glucose level and ketonuria, and whether it has any adverse effects on fetal Doppler, birthweight, preterm delivery or cesarean section rate.
Fifty-six consecutive, healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies of ≥ 28 week gestation who had fasted for at least 10 consecutive days during the study period were defined as the study group. Fifty-four healthy non-fasted women matched for age, parity, and gestational age were defined as the control group. Groups were compared according to fetal middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio, maternal serum lipid levels and neonatal outcomes (gestational age at delivery, birthweight, delivery type and neonatal intensive care admission).
No statistical difference was found between the groups according to fetal Doppler parameters, amniotic fluid index, gestational age at delivery, cesarean section rate, birthweight or NICU admission. However, lower levels of VLDL, triglyceride and higher incidence of ketonuria were detected in the fasting group (p < 0.05).
Fasting of healthy women during pregnancy seems to have no adverse effects on amniotic fluid index, fetal Doppler and delivery parameters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.British Journal Of Nutrition 09/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Please cite this paper as: Awwad J, Usta I, Succar J, Musallam K, Ghazeeri G, Nassar A. The effect of maternal fasting during Ramadan on preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study. BJOG 2012;119:1379-1386. Objective To determine the effect of fasting during the month of Ramadan on the rate of preterm delivery (PTD). Design A prospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies who elected to fast and matched controls. Setting Four medical centres in Beirut, Lebanon. Population Women presenting for prenatal care (20-34 weeks of gestation) during the month of Ramadan, September 2008. Methods Data were collected prospectively. The frequency of PTD was evaluated in relation to the duration of fasting and the stage of gestation at the time of fasting. Main outcome measures The primary endpoint was the percentage of pregnant women who had PTD, defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Results A total of 468 women were approached, of whom 402 were included in the study. There were no differences in smoking history and employment. There was no difference in the proportion of women who had PTD at <37 weeks (10.4% versus 10.4%) or PTD at <32 weeks (1.5% versus 0.5%) in the Ramadan-fasted group and the controls, respectively. The PTD rate was also similar in those who fasted before or during the third trimester. The mean birthweight was lower (3094 ± 467 g versus 3202 ± 473 g, P = 0.024) and the rate of ketosis and ketonuria was higher in the Ramadan-fasted women. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, fasting was not associated with an increased risk of PTD (odds ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.54; P = 0.397). The only factor that had a significant effect on the PTD rate was body mass index (odds ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.93; P = 0.033). Conclusions Fasting during the month of Ramadan does not seem to increase the baseline risk of preterm delivery in pregnant women regardless of the gestational age during which this practice is observed.BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 07/2012; 119(11):1379-86. · 3.76 Impact Factor