Changes in the somatotrophic axis in genetically identical dogs.
ABSTRACT Because cloned dogs are genetically identical, variations among these animals can be a useful tool to elucidate mechanisms underlying phenotypic differences. To estimate the influence of genetic factors on phenotypic variation, changes in concentration patterns of growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) were compared among cloned and age-matched control dogs. In addition, the concentrations of GH and IGF-1 following administration of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) were measured in both groups. In comparing hormone profiles, the control dogs had larger standard deviations from the means for GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 than the clones. Also, the mean concentration of IGFBP-3 in clones was significantly lower than in the controls between 7 to 12 months of age, whereas the IGFBP-3 changes in clones and controls followed the same pattern. GHRH induced increased serum growth hormone concentration both in clones and controls. However, the concentration of IGF-1 was lower in clones than in controls, and larger standard variations were noted in the control group. In conclusion, the measured traits were more homogeneous in cloned animals than in controls, so cloned animals could be valuable for assessing effects of genotype and environment interactions.
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ABSTRACT: Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.Cloning and Stem Cells 02/2007; 9(1):130-7. · 2.66 Impact Factor
Article: Nature, nurture and human disease.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: What has been learnt about individual human biology and common diseases 50 years on from the discovery of the structure of DNA? Unfortunately the double helix has not, so far, revealed as much as one would have hoped. The primary reason is an inability to determine how nurture fits into the DNA paradigm. We argue here that the environment exerts its influence at the DNA level and so will need to be understood before the underlying causal factors of common human diseases can be fully recognized.Nature 02/2003; 421(6921):412-4. · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper contains the reference data for the main physiological indicators of three species of laboratory animals: mice, rabbits and dogs. Data listed include the mean and the standard deviation of haematology, serum biochemistry and organ weight to body weight ratio. In addition, pathological studies including microscopical examination of organs and tissues were also done. Comparisons between sexes were analysed.Laboratory Animals 11/2000; 34(4):379-85. · 0.80 Impact Factor