Multivalent Bifunctional Chelator Scaffolds for Gallium-68 Based Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probe Design: Signal Amplification via Multivalency

Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States.
Bioconjugate Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.82). 08/2011; 22(8):1650-62. DOI: 10.1021/bc200227d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of the multivalent effect has been well recognized in the design of molecular imaging probes toward the desired imaging signal amplification. Recently, we reported a bifunctional chelator (BFC) scaffold design, which provides a simple and versatile approach to impart multivalency to radiometal based nuclear imaging probes. In this work, we report a series of BFC scaffolds ((t)Bu(3)-1-COOH, (t)Bu(3)-2-(COOH)(2), and (t)Bu(3)-3-(COOH)(3)) constructed on the framework of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for (68)Ga-based PET probe design and signal amplification via the multivalent effect. For proof of principle, a known integrin α(v)β(3) specific ligand (c(RGDyK)) was used to build the corresponding NOTA conjugates (H(3)1, H(3)2, and H(3)3), which present 1-3 copies of c(RGDyK) peptide, respectively, in a systematic manner. Using the integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinities (IC(50) values), enhanced specific binding was observed for multivalent conjugates (H(3)2: 43.9 ± 16.1 nM; H(3)3: 14.7 ± 5.0 nM) as compared to their monovalent counterpart (H(3)1: 171 ± 60 nM) and the intact c(RGDyK) peptide (204 ± 76 nM). The obtained conjugates were efficiently labeled with (68)Ga(3+) within 30 min at room temperature in high radiochemical yields (>95%). The in vivo evaluation of the labeled conjugates, (68)Ga-1, (68)Ga-2, and (68)Ga-3, was performed using male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing integrin α(v)β(3) positive PC-3 tumor xenografts (n = 3). All (68)Ga-labeled conjugates showed high in vivo stability with no detectable metabolites found by radio-HPLC within 2 h postinjection (p.i.). The PET signal amplification in PC-3 tumor by the multivalent effect was clearly displayed by the tumor uptake of the (68)Ga-labeled conjugates ((68)Ga-3: 2.55 ± 0.50%ID/g; (68)Ga-2: 1.90 ± 0.10%ID/g; (68)Ga-1: 1.66 ± 0.15%ID/g) at 2 h p.i. In summary, we have designed and synthesized a series of NOTA-based BFC scaffolds with signal amplification properties, which may find potential applications as diagnostic gallium radiopharmaceuticals.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The availability of commercial (68)Ge/(68)Ga cyclotron-independent (68)Ga(3+) generators is making Positron Emission Tomography (PET) accessible to most hospitals, which is generating a surge of interest in the design and synthesis of bi-functional chelators for Ga(3+). In this work we introduce the NO2A-N-(α-amino)propionic acid family of chelators based on the triazacyclononane scaffold. Complexation of the parent NO2A-N-(α-amino)propionic acid chelator and of a low molecular weight (model) amide conjugate with Ga(3+) was studied by (1)H and (71)Ga NMR. The Ga(3+) chelate of the amide conjugate shows pH-independent N3O3 coordination in the pH range 3-10 involving the carboxylate group of the pendant propionate arm in a 6 member chelate. For the Ga[NO2A-N-(α-amino)propionate] chelate, a reversible pH-triggered switch from Ga(3+) coordination to the carboxylate group to coordination to the amine group of the propionate arm was observed upon pH increase/decrease in the pH range 4-6. This phenomenon can conceivably constitute the basis of a physiological pH sensor. Both complexes are stable in the physiological range. The [(67)Ga][NO2A-N-(α-benzoylamido)propionate] chelate was found to be stable in human serum. Biodistribution studies of the (67)Ga(3+)-labeled pyrene butyric acid conjugate NO2A-N-(α-pyrenebutanamido)propionic acid revealed that, despite its high lipophilicity and concentration-dependent aggregation properties, the chelate follows mainly renal elimination with very low liver/spleen accumulation and no activity deposition in bones after 24 hours. Facile synthesis of amide conjugates of the NO2A-N-(α-amino)propionic acid chelator, serum stability of the Ga(3+) chelates and fast renal elimination warrant further evaluation of this novel class of chelators for PET applications.
    Dalton Transactions 04/2014; DOI:10.1039/c4dt00386a · 4.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Herein, we report the synthesis of two enantiomeric DOTAZA esters and a related DOT3AZA ester. These compounds are tunable analogues of the well-known chelator DOTA and can be easily functionalized through click chemistry of the side-chain azide groups. Like DOTA, DOTAZA forms complexes with various di- and trivalent metals, as demonstrated in the synthesis and structural analysis of CuDOTAZA and the preparation of GdDOTAZA.
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal 08/2014; 9(8). DOI:10.1002/asia.201402250 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well recognized that carbon chirality plays a critical role in the design of drug molecules. However, very little information is available regarding the effect of stereoisomerism of macrocyclic bifunctional chelators (BFC) on biological behaviors of the corresponding radiopharmaceuticals. To evaluate such effects, three enantiopure stereoisomers of a copper radiopharmaceutical BFC bearing two chiral carbon atoms were synthesized in forms of R,R-, S,S-, and R,S-. Their corresponding peptide conjugates were prepared by coupling with a model peptide sequence, c(RGDyK), which targets the αvβ3 integrin for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of their biological behaviors as compared to the racemic conjugate. Despite the chirality differences, all the conjugates showed a similar in vitro binding affinity profile to the αvβ3 integrin (106, 108, 85 and 100 nM for rac-H2-1, RR-H2-1, SS-H2-1, and RS-H2-1 respectively with all p values > 0.05) and a similar level of in vivo tumor uptake (2.72 ± 0.45, 2.60 ± 0.52, 2.45 ± 0.48 and 2.88 ± 0.59 for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 at 1 h p.i. respectively). Furthermore, they demonstrated a nearly identical biodistribution pattern in major organs (e.g. 2.07 ± 0.21, 2.13 ± 0.58, 1.70 ± 0.20 and 1.90 ± 0.46 %ID/g at 24 h p.i. in liver for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 respectively; 1.80 ± 0.46, 2.30 ± 1.49, 1.73 ± 0.31 and 2.23 ± 0.71 at 24 h p.i. in kidneys for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 respectively). Therefore we conclude that the chirality of BFC plays a negligible role in αvβ3-targeted copper radiopharmaceuticals. However, we believe it is still worthwhile to consider the chirality effects of BFCs on other targeted imaging or therapeutic agents.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2014; 80C:308-315. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.04.071 · 3.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 15, 2014