Binding energetics of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase with ferredoxin and its relation to function.
ABSTRACT To obtain insight into the motional features of proteins for enzymatic function, we studied binding reactions between ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin (Fd) using isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR-based magnetic relaxation and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HD(ex)). Fd-FNR binding was accompanied by endothermic reactions and driven by the entropy gain. Component-wise analysis of the net entropy change revealed that increases in the conformational entropy of the Fd-FNR complex contributed largely to stabilizing the complex. Intriguingly, analyses of magnetic relaxation and HD(ex) rates with X-ray B factor implied that Fd binding led to both structural stiffening and softening of FNR. Enhanced FNR backbone fluctuations suggest favorable contributions to the net conformational entropy. Fd-bound FNR further showed that relatively large-scale motions of the C terminus, a gatekeeper for interactions of NADP(+) (H), were quenched in the closed form, thereby facilitating exit of NADP(+) (H). This can provide a first dynamic structure-based explanation for the negative cooperativity between Fd and NADP(+) (H) via FNR.
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