Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

Department of Health Technologies, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
Odontology (Impact Factor: 1.35). 07/2011; 100(2):232-40. DOI: 10.1007/s10266-011-0036-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent group of illnesses of microbial etiology, whose consequence is a severe breakdown of tooth-supporting structures. A link between periodontal infection and several systemic conditions, among which adverse pregnancy outcomes, has been suggested in the recent years. The aim of this review based on case-control studies was to evaluate if periodontal disease could be considered as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth-weight and preterm low birth-weight. An electronic search (via Pubmed) was performed for case-control studies investigating the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. From the initially retrieved 417 articles, 17 case-control studies, accounting for a total of 10,148 patients, were included in the review and in the meta-analysis. The estimated odds ratio was 1.78 (CI 95%: 1.58, 2.01) for preterm birth, 1.82 (CI 95%: 1.51, 1.20) for low birth-weight and 3.00 (CI 95%: 1.93, 4.68) for preterm low birth-weight. Despite the results of the analysis of pooled data suggested a link between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the presence of important confounders, whose effect could not be addressed, prevents a validation of the meta-analysis outcomes. Further more accurate investigations based on individual data analysis could give a better insight into the topic of the present review.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: and objectives: There is still debate regarding potential relationships between maternal periodontitis during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the available epidemiological evidence on this association. Data sources: Combined electronic and hand search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE and Cochrane Central Register databases. Study eligibility criteria: Original publications reporting data from cross-sectional, case-control or prospective cohort epidemiological studies on the association between periodontal status and preterm birth, low birthweight (LBW) or preeclampsia. The search was not limited to publications in English. All selected studies provided data based on professional assessments of periodontal status, and outcome variables, including preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), LBW (<2500 g), gestational age, small for gestational age, birthweight, pregnancy loss or miscarriage, or pre-eclampsia. Participants: Pregnant women with or without periodontal disease, and with or without adverse pregnancy outcomes, assessed either during pregnancy or postpartum. No intervention studies were included. Study appraisal and synthesis methods - Publications were assessed based on predefined screening criteria including type of periodontal assessment, consistency in the timing of the periodontal assessment with respect to gestational age, examiner masking and consideration of additional exposures and confounders. Results: Maternal periodontitis is modestly but significantly associated with LBW and preterm birth, but the use of a categorical or a continuous exposure definition of periodontitis appears to impact the findings: Although significant associations emerge from case-control and cross-sectional studies using periodontitis "case definitions," these were substantially attenuated in studies assessing periodontitis as a continuous variable. Data from prospective studies followed a similar pattern, but associations were generally weaker. Maternal periodontitis was significantly associated with pre-eclampsia. Limitations: There is a high degree of variability in study populations, recruitment and assessment, as well as differences in how data are recorded and handled. As a result, studies included in meta-analyses show a high degree of heterogeneity. Conclusions and implications: of key findings: Maternal periodontitis is modestly but independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but the findings are impacted by periodontitis case definitions. It is suggested that future studies employ both continuous and categorical assessments of periodontal status. Further use of the composite outcome preterm LBW is not encouraged.
    Journal of Periodontology 04/2013; 84(4 Suppl):S181-94. DOI:10.1902/jop.2013.134009 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Dekker 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Los principales factores de riesgo relacionados con eventos cardiovasculares son: edad, género, hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, tabaquismo, bajo nivel de lipoproteínas de alta densidad, genética, estrés, obesidad y sedentarismo; pero existen factores de riesgo no identificados aún para explicar el modelo cardiovascular. La enfermedad periodontal ha emergido en las últimas décadas como un posible factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares. Una revisión sistemática presenta un riesgo relativo (RR) de 1,19 (IC 95 %, 1,08 -1,32) para la asociación entre la enfermedad periodontal y las enfermedades cardiovasculares y de 2,85 (IC 95 %, 1,78-4,56) para accidentes cerebrovasculares. La periodontitis tiene un efecto sistémico al producir gran cantidad de mediadores inflamatorios (hipersecreción de citoquinas IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, prostaglandina E2, PCR y fibrinógeno). Se realizó una revisión narrativa acerca del impacto de la terapia periodontal mecánica y farmacológica sobre la función endotelial y sobre la disminución de sustancias pro-inflamatorias marcadoras de riesgo cardiovascular como la PCR y los niveles séricos de IL-6. Se concluye que la enfermedad periodontal es un factor de riesgo modificable, susceptible de ser prevenido y tratado con procedimientos de bajo riesgo, por lo tanto su tratamiento puede ser un componente integral de la cardiología preventiva.
    07/2011; 25(2):181-192.