Immunotherapy response evaluation with (18)F-FDG-PET in patients with advanced stage renal cell carcinoma.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, .
World Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 2.89). 07/2011; DOI: 10.1007/s00345-011-0723-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: CT imaging is widely used for response evaluation of immunotherapy in patients with advanced stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, this kind of treatment may not immediately be cytoreductive, although the treatment is successful. This poses new demands on imaging modalities. Positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) proved to be useful in monitoring the effect of several antitumour treatments. We investigated the potential of FDG-PET for the evaluation of response to immunotherapy. METHODS: In seven patients with metastasized RCC, who were treated with either interferon-alpha (IFN-α) monotherapy or a combination of IFN-α, interleukin-2 and 5-fluorouracil, FDG-PET was performed prior and after 5 and 9 weeks of treatment. Quantitative changes of glucose metabolic rate (MR(Glu)) were compared with changes in tumour size on CT imaging using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and to survival and progression-free survival. RESULTS: No consistent changes in MR(Glu) were observed within different response groups. And no correlation with CT imaging, neither with survival or progression-free survival, was found. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the positive results reported on (chemo) therapy response evaluation with FDG-PET in different malignancies, this imaging modality appears not useful in response monitoring of immunotherapeutic modalities in RCC.

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