HSV-2 infection of dendritic cells amplifies a highly susceptible HIV-1 cell target.

Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, New York, New York, United States of America.
PLoS Pathogens (Impact Factor: 8.06). 06/2011; 7(6):e1002109. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases the risk of HIV-1 infection and, although several reports describe the interaction between these two viruses, the exact mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) at the site of entry of HSV-2 and HIV-1 contribute to viral spread in the mucosa. Specialized DCs present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues produce retinoic acid (RA), an important immunomodulator, able to influence HIV-1 replication and a key mediator of integrin α₄β₇ on lymphocytes. α₄β₇ can be engaged by HIV-1 on the cell-surface and CD4⁺ T cells expressing high levels of this integrin (α₄β₇ (high)) are particularly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Herein we provide in-vivo data in macaques showing an increased percentage of α₄β₇ (high) CD4⁺ T cells in rectal mucosa, iliac lymph nodes and blood within 6 days of rectal exposure to live (n = 11), but not UV-treated (n = 8), HSV-2. We found that CD11c⁺ DCs are a major target of HSV-2 infection in in-vitro exposed PBMCs. We determined that immature monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) express aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A1, an enzyme essential for RA production, which increases upon HSV-2 infection. Moreover, HSV-2-infected moDCs significantly increase α₄β₇ expression on CD4⁺ T lymphocytes and HIV-1 infection in DC-T cell mixtures in a RA-dependent manner. Thus, we propose that HSV-2 modulates its microenviroment, influencing DC function, increasing RA production capability and amplifying a α₄β₇ (high)CD4⁺ T cells. These factors may play a role in increasing the susceptibility to HIV-1.

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    ABSTRACT: Prior HSV-2 infection enhances the acquisition of HIV-1 >3-fold. In genital herpes lesions, the superficial layers of stratified squamous epithelium are disrupted, allowing easier access of HIV-1 to Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis and perhaps even dendritic cells (DCs) in the outer dermis, as well as to lesion infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and macrophages. Therefore, we examined the effects of coinfection with HIV-1 and HSV-2 on monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC). With simultaneous coinfection, HSV-2 significantly stimulated HIV-1 DNA production 5-fold compared with HIV-1 infection alone. Because <1% of cells were dually infected, this was a field effect. Virus-stripped supernatants from HSV-2-infected MDDCs were shown to enhance HIV-1 infection, as measured by HIV-1-DNA and p24 Ag in MDDCs. Furthermore these supernatants markedly stimulated CCR5 expression on both MDDCs and LCs. TNF-α was by far the most prominent cytokine in the supernatant and also within HSV-2-infected MDDCs. HSV-2 infection of isolated immature epidermal LCs, but not keratinocytes, also produced TNF-α (and low levels of IFN-β). Neutralizing Ab to TNF-α and its receptor, TNF-R1, on MDDCs markedly inhibited the CCR5-stimulating effect of the supernatant. Therefore, these results suggest that HSV-2 infection of DCs in the skin during primary or recurrent genital herpes may enhance HIV-1 infection of adjacent DCs, thus contributing to acquisition of HIV-1 through herpetic lesions. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
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    ABSTRACT: HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes, and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. After initial infection, HSV-2 can establish latency within the nervous system and thus maintains lifelong infection in humans. It has been suggested that HSV-2 can inhibit type I IFN signaling, but the underlying mechanism has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that productive HSV-2 infection suppresses Sendai virus (SeV) or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced IFN-β production. We further reveal that US1, an immediate-early protein of HSV-2, contributes to such suppression, showing that US1 inhibits IFN-β promoter activity and IFN-β production at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas US1 knockout significantly impairs such capability in the context of HSV-2 infection. US1 directly interacts with DNA binding domain of IRF-3, and such interaction suppresses the association of nuclear IRF-3 with the IRF-3 responsive domain of IFN-β promoter, resulting in the suppression of IFN-β promoter activation. Additional studies demonstrate that the 217-414 aa domain of US1 is critical for the suppression of IFN-β production. Our results indicate that HSV-2 US1 downmodulates IFN-β production by suppressing the association of IRF-3 with the IRF-3 responsive domain of IFN-β promoter. Our findings highlight the significance of HSV-2 US1 in inhibiting IFN-β production and provide insights into the molecular mechanism by which HSV-2 evades the host innate immunity, representing an unconventional strategy exploited by a dsDNA virus to interrupt type I IFN signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

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