Molecular analysis of the luminal- and mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome
ABSTRACT Alterations in the intestinal microbiota have been suggested as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study used a molecular fingerprinting technique to compare the composition and biodiversity of the microbiota within fecal and mucosal niches between patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) and healthy controls. Terminal-restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used to perform microbial community composition analyses on fecal and mucosal samples from patients with D-IBS (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 21). Molecular fingerprinting of the microbiota from fecal and colonic mucosal samples revealed differences in the contribution of T-RFs to the microbiota between D-IBS patients and healthy controls. Further analysis revealed a significantly lower (1.2-fold) biodiversity of microbes within fecal samples from D-IBS patients than healthy controls (P = 0.008). No difference in biodiversity in mucosal samples was detected between D-IBS patients and healthy controls. Multivariate analysis of T-RFLP profiles demonstrated distinct microbial communities between luminal and mucosal niches in all samples. Our findings of compositional differences in the luminal- and mucosal-associated microbiota between D-IBS patients and healthy controls and diminished microbial biodiversity in D-IBS fecal samples further support the hypothesis that alterations in the intestinal microbiota may have an etiological role in the pathogenesis of D-IBS and suggest that luminal and mucosal niches need to be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Understanding the dynamics of the gut–brain axis has clinical implications for physical and mental health conditions, including obesity and anxiety. As such disorders have early life antecedents, it is of value to determine if associations between the gut microbiome and behavior are present in early life in humans. Methods: We used next generation pyrosequencing to examine associations between the community structure of the gut microbiome and maternal ratings of child temperament in 77 children at 18–27 months of age. It was hypothesized that children would differ in their gut microbial structure, as indicated by measures of alpha and beta diversity, based on their temperamental characteristics. Results: Among both boys and girls, greater Surgency/Extraversion was associated greater phylogenetic diversity. In addition, among boys only, subscales loading on this composite scale were associated with differences in phylogenetic diversity, the Shannon Diversity index (SDI), beta diversity, and differences in abundances of Dialister, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Parabacteroides. In girls only, higher Effortful Control was associated with a lower SDI score and differences in both beta diversity and Rikenellaceae were observed in relation to Fear. Some differences in dietary patterns were observed in relation to temperament, but these did not account for the observed differences in the microbiome. Conclusions: Differences in gut microbiome composition, including alpha diversity, beta diversity, and abundances of specific bacterial species, were observed in association with temperament in toddlers. This study was cross-sectional and observational and, therefore, does not permit determination of the causal direction of effects. However, if bidirectional brain–gut relationships are present in humans in early life, this may represent an opportunity for intervention relevant to physical as well as mental health disorders.Brain Behavior and Immunity 11/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.10.018 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Accumulating evidence suggests that commensal bacteria consumption has the potential to have a positive impact on stress-related psychiatric disorders. However, the specific bacteria influencing behaviors related to anxiety and depression remain unclear. To this end, we compared the effects of two different Bifidobacteria on anxiety and depression-like behavior; an antidepressant was also used as a comparator.Methods Innately anxious BALB/c mice received daily Bifidobacterium longum (B.) 1714, B. breve 1205, the antidepressant escitalopram or vehicle treatment for 6 weeks. Behavior was assessed in stress-induced hyperthermia test, marble burying, elevated plus maze, open field, tail suspension test, and forced swim test. Physiological responses to acute stress were also assessed.Key ResultsBoth Bifidobacteria and escitalopram reduced anxiety in the marble burying test; however, only B. longum 1714 decreased stress-induced hyperthermia. B. breve 1205 induced lower anxiety in the elevated plus maze whereas B. longum 1714 induced antidepressant-like behavior in the tail suspension test. However, there was no difference in corticosterone levels between groups.Conclusions & InferencesThese data show that these two Bifidobacteria strains reduced anxiety in an anxious mouse strain. These results also suggest that each bacterial strain has intrinsic effects and may be beneficially specific for a given disorder. These findings strengthen the role of gut microbiota supplementation as psychobiotic-based strategies for stress-related brain-gut axis disorders, opening new avenues in the field of neurogastroenterology.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 09/2014; 26(11). DOI:10.1111/nmo.12427 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions.World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2014; 20(39):14105-14125. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14105 · 2.43 Impact Factor