Insights into EB1 structure and the role of its C-terminal domain for discriminating microtubule tips from the lattice.
ABSTRACT End-binding proteins (EBs) comprise a conserved family of microtubule plus end-tracking proteins. The concerted action of calponin homology (CH), linker, and C-terminal domains of EBs is important for their autonomous microtubule tip tracking, regulation of microtubule dynamics, and recruitment of numerous partners to microtubule ends. Here we report the detailed structural and biochemical analysis of mammalian EBs. Small-angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry indicate that EBs are elongated molecules with two interacting CH domains, an arrangement reminiscent of that seen in other microtubule- and actin-binding proteins. Removal of the negatively charged C-terminal tail did not affect the overall conformation of EBs; however, it increased the dwell times of EBs on the microtubule lattice in microtubule tip-tracking reconstitution experiments. An even more stable association with the microtubule lattice was observed when the entire negatively charged C-terminal domain of EBs was replaced by a neutral coiled-coil motif. In contrast, the interaction of EBs with growing microtubule tips was not significantly affected by these C-terminal domain mutations. Our data indicate that long-range electrostatic repulsive interactions between the C-terminus and the microtubule lattice drive the specificity of EBs for growing microtubule ends.
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ABSTRACT: Tubulin cofactors (TBCs) participate in the folding, dimerization, and dissociation pathways of the tubulin dimer. Among them, TBCB and TBCE are two CAP-Gly domain-containing proteins that together efficiently interact with and dissociate the tubulin dimer. In the study reported here we showed that TBCB localizes at spindle and midzone microtubules during mitosis. Furthermore, the motif DEI/M-COO(-) present in TBCB, which is similar to the EEY/F-COO(-) element characteristic of EB proteins, CLIP-170, and α-tubulin, is required for TBCE-TBCB heterodimer formation and thus for tubulin dimer dissociation. This motif is responsible for TBCB autoinhibition, and our analysis suggests that TBCB is a monomer in solution. Mutants of TBCB lacking this motif are derepressed and induce microtubule depolymerization through an interaction with EB1 associated with microtubule tips. TBCB is also able to bind to the chaperonin complex CCT containing α-tubulin, suggesting that it could escort tubulin to facilitate its folding and dimerization, recycling or degradation.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 09/2012; · 6.57 Impact Factor
Article: Cooperative stabilization of microtubule dynamics by EB1 and CLIP-170 involves displacement of stably bound P(i) at microtubule ends.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: End binding protein 1 (EB1) and cytoplasmic linker protein of 170 kDa (CLIP-170) are two well-studied microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) that target growing microtubule plus ends in the form of comet tails and regulate microtubule dynamics. However, the mechanism by which they regulate microtubule dynamics is not well understood. Using full-length EB1 and a minimal functional fragment of CLIP-170 (ClipCG12), we found that EB1 and CLIP-170 cooperatively regulate microtubule dynamic instability at concentrations below which neither protein is effective. By use of small-angle X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation, we found that ClipCG12 adopts a largely extended conformation with two noninteracting CAP-Gly domains and that it formed a complex in solution with EB1. Using a reconstituted steady-state mammalian microtubule system, we found that at a low concentration of 250 nM, neither EB1 nor ClipCG12 individually modulated plus-end dynamic instability. Higher concentrations (up to 2 μM) of the two proteins individually did modulate dynamic instability, perhaps by a combination of effects at the tips and along the microtubule lengths. However, when low concentrations (250 nM) of EB1 and ClipCG12 were present together, the mixture modulated dynamic instability considerably. Using a pulsing strategy with [γ(32)P]GTP, we further found that unlike EB1 or ClipCG12 alone, the EB1-ClipCG12 mixture partially depleted the microtubule ends of stably bound (32)P(i). Together, our results suggest that EB1 and ClipCG12 act cooperatively to regulate microtubule dynamics. They further indicate that stabilization of microtubule plus ends by the EB1-ClipCG12 mixture may involve modification of an aspect of the stabilizing cap.Biochemistry 03/2012; 51(14):3021-30. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Dataset: LopusM Biochemistry 2012