Injury-Induced Changes in Liver Specific Transcription Factors HNF-1 alpha and HNF-4 alpha
ABSTRACT The hepatic acute phase response(APR) is an organ-specific response to a diverse array of insults and is largely under transcriptional control. Liver-specific transcription factors, hepatic nuclear factors (HNFs)-1α and 4α play important roles in maintenance of liver phenotype and function and their binding activity changes early after injury. However, their roles in modulation of the liver's response over time are not defined.
C57/BL6 mice were anesthetized and exposed to 95°C water for 10 s to create a 15% body surface area full-thickness burn. At specific time points, the mice were sacrificed. An ELISA for IL-6 was performed on serum and hepatic mRNA levels for fibrinogen-γ and serum amyloid A(SAA)-3 were obtained through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Transcriptional factor binding activity was assessed with electrophoretic mobility shift assays.
Serum IL-6 levels peaked at 3 h and fibrinogen-γ and SAA mRNA levels increased more than 6-fold at 12 h before returning to control levels at 48 h. The binding activity of HNF-4α and HNF-1α rapidly declined after injury (1.5 h) but recovered to near control level at 24 and 6 h, respectively.
Changes in HNF-4α and HNF-1α binding occurred before changes in acute phase protein mRNA levels and were preceded by the peak in IL-6 levels. The rapid suppression and reconstitution of liver-specific transcription factor binding after injury may represent a mechanism that allows the normal liver phenotype to change and an injury-response phenotype to prevail. This mechanism in the liver's adaptive response to injury suggests a central role for both HNF-4α and HNF-1α in transcriptional regulation of the hepatic APR.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4-α) is a nuclear receptor regulating metabolism, cell junctions, differentiation and proliferation in liver and intestinal epithelial cells. Mutations within the HNF4A gene are associated with human diseases such as maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Recently, HNF4A has also been described as a susceptibility gene for ulcerative colitis in genome-wide association studies. In addition, specific HNF4A genetic variants have been identified in pediatric cohorts of Crohn's disease. Results obtained from knockout mice supported that HNF4-α can protect the intestinal mucosae against inflammation. However, the exact molecular links behind HNF4-α and inflammatory bowel diseases remains elusive. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the role of HNF4-α and its isoforms in inflammation. Specific nature of HNF4-α P1 and P2 classes of isoforms will be summarized. HNF4-α role as a hepatocyte mediator for cytokines relays during liver inflammation will be integrated based on documented examples of the literature. Conclusions that can be made from these earlier liver studies will serve as a basis to extrapolate correlations and divergences applicable to intestinal inflammation. Finally, potential functional roles for HNF4-α isoforms in protecting the intestinal mucosae from chronic and pathological inflammation will be presented.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; 20(1):22-30. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.22 · 2.43 Impact Factor