Socioeconomic Indicators and the Risk of Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events: Comparison of Population-Based Data from the United States and Finland

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
Annals of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.15). 08/2011; 21(8):572-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.04.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We wished to determine whether a gradient of association of low socioeconomic status with incidence of coronary heart disease was present in two population-based cohorts, one from United States and the other from Finland.
Using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort and the Finnish FINRISK cohort, we estimated, with Cox proportional hazard regression models, incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD), non-sudden cardiac death (NSCD), and non-fatal myocardial infarction (NFMI) for strata of income and education (follow-up: 1987-2001). In both cohorts, incidence rates of the three outcomes increased across all socioeconomic status exposure categories.
Low education was associated with increased hazard of NFMI in both cohorts and with increased risk of SCD among ARIC women. Low income was significantly associated with increased hazard of all three outcomes among ARIC women and with increased hazard of cardiac death among ARIC men. In FINRISK, low income was significantly associated with increased risk of SCD only. Risk of SCD in the low income categories was similar for both cohorts. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and race (ARIC only) did not appreciably alter effect estimates in either cohort.
Indices of low SES show similar associations with increased risk of cardiac events in Finland and in United States.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes.The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance).Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted Ptrend = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race-sex groups.Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group.
    Medicine 02/2015; 94(7):e552. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000552 · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the economic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a given year (2010), including direct and indirect costs, and examine the impact of contextual and individual socio-economic (SES) predictors on the costs of CHD among adults in rural southwest China. Cross-sectional community survey. In total, 4595 adults (aged ≥18 years) participated in this study. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the economic burden of CHD. Information on demographic characteristics of the study population and the economic consequences of CHD was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to model the variation in costs of CHD. In the study population, the overall prevalence of CHD was 2.9% (3.5% for males, 2.3% for females). The total cost of CHD was estimated to be US$17 million. Inpatient hospitalizations represented the main component of direct costs of CHD, and direct costs accounted for the greatest proportion of the economic burden of CHD. Males were more likely to have a higher economic burden of CHD than females. A positive association was found between the individual's level of education and the economic burden of CHD. Residence in a higher-income community was associated with higher costs related to CHD. This study found that both contextual and individual SES were closely associated with the costs of CHD. Future strategies for CHD interventions and improved access to affordable medications to treat and control CHD should focus on less-educated individuals and communities with lower SES. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Public Health 12/2014; 129(1). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.11.002 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionSince no hospital-based, nationwide study has been yet conducted on the association between risk factors and in-hospital mortality due to myocardial infarction (MI) by educational level in Iran, the present study was conducted to investigate relationship between risk factors and in-hospital mortality due to MI by educational level.Methods In this nationwide hospital-based, prospective analysis, follow-up duration was from definite diagnosis of MI to death. The cohort of the patients was defined in view of the date at diagnosis, hospitalization and the date at discharge (recovery or in-hospital death due to MI). 20750 patients hospitalized for newly diagnosed MI between April, 2012 and March, 2013 comprised sample size. Totally, 2511 deaths due to MI were obtained. The data on education level (four-level) were collected based on years of schooling. To determine in-hospital mortality rate and the associated factors with mortality, seven statistical models were developed using Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsOf the studied patients, 9611 (6.1%) had no education. in-hospital mortality rate was 8.36 (95% CI: 7.81-8.9) in women and 6.12 (95% CI: 5.83-6.43) in men per 100 person-years. This rate was 5.56 in under 65-year-old patients and 8.37 in over 65-year-old patients. This rate in the patients with no, primary, high school, and academic education was respectively 8.11, 6.11, 4.85 and 5.81 per 100 person-years. Being woman, chest pain prior to arriving in hospital, lack of thrombolytic therapy, right bundle branch block, ventricular tachycardia, smoking and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were significantly associated with increased hazard ratio (HR) of death. The adjusted HR of mortality was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.06-1.52), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.77-1.13), 0.72 (95%CI: 0.57-0.91) and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.66-1.01) in the patients with respectively illiterate, primary, secondary and high school education compared to academic education.ConclusionA disparity was noted in post-MI mortality incidence in different educational levels in Iran. HR of death was higher in illiterate patients than in the patients with academic education. Identifying disparities per educational level could contribute to detecting the individuals at high risk, health promotion and care improvement by relevant planning and interventions in clinics and communities.
    International Journal for Equity in Health 11/2014; 13(1):116. DOI:10.1186/s12939-014-0116-0 · 1.71 Impact Factor


Available from