Article

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Liver Transplant Candidate

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 07/2011; 58(3):223-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Liver transplantation (LT) candidates today are increasingly older, have greater medical acuity, and have more cardiovascular comorbidities than ever before. Steadily rising model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores at the time of transplant, resulting from high organ demand, reflect the escalating risk profiles of LT candidates. In addition to advanced age and the presence of comorbidities, there are specific cardiovascular responses in cirrhosis that can be detrimental to the LT candidate. Patients with cirrhosis requiring LT usually demonstrate increased cardiac output and a compromised ventricular response to stress, a condition termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. These cardiac disturbances are likely mediated by decreased beta-agonist transduction, increased circulating inflammatory mediators with cardiodepressant properties, and repolarization changes. Low systemic vascular resistance and bradycardia are also commonly seen in cirrhosis and can be aggravated by beta-blocker use. These physiologic changes all contribute to the potential for cardiovascular complications, particularly with the altered hemodynamic stresses that LT patients face in the immediate post-operative period. Post-transplant reperfusion may result in cardiac death due to a multitude of causes, including arrhythmia, acute heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Recognizing the hemodynamic challenges encountered by LT patients in the perioperative period and how these responses can be exacerbated by underlying cardiac pathology is critical in developing recommendations for the pre-operative risk assessment and management of these patients. The following provides a review of the cardiovascular challenges in LT candidates, as well as evidence-based recommendations for their evaluation and management.

0 Followers
 · 
132 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Succinate is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle as well as an extracellular circulating molecule, whose receptor, G protein-coupled receptor-91 (GPR91), was recently identified and characterized in several tissues, including heart. Because some pathological conditions such as ischemia increase succinate blood levels, we investigated the role of this metabolite during a heart ischemic event, using human and rodent models.ResultsWe found that succinate causes cardiac hypertrophy in a GPR91 dependent manner. GPR91 activation triggers the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), the expression of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II¿ (CaMKII¿) and the translocation of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) into the cytoplasm, which are hypertrophic-signaling events. Furthermore, we found that serum levels of succinate are increased in patients with cardiac hypertrophy associated with acute and chronic ischemic diseases.Conclusions These results show for the first time that succinate plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through GPR91 activation, and extend our understanding of how ischemia can induce hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    Cell Communication and Signaling 12/2014; 12(1):1. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1587168173132647 · 4.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with end-stage liver disease in need of liver transplantation increasingly are older with a greater burden of cardiac disease and other co-morbidities, which may increase perioperative risk and adversely affect long-term prognosis. Cirrhosis of any etiology manifests hemodynamically as a state of low systemic vascular resistance, with high peripheral, but low central blood volume, leading to a state of neurohormonal activation and high cardiac output, which may adversely affect cardiac reserve under extreme perioperative stress, aptly termed cirrhosis-associated or cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Evidence of asymptomatic cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may be found in subtle electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes, but may progress to severe heart failure under the demands of bleeding and transfusions, vasopressors, rebounding peripheral vascular resistance, withdrawal of cardioprotective beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid antagonists, exacerbated by sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This review will add to the current body of literature on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy by focusing on the role of advanced echocardiographic imaging techniques, cardiac biomarkers, and advanced heart failure therapies available to manage patients with cirrhotic cardiomyopathy while waiting for liver transplant and during the perioperative period.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension represents a serious lung vascular disorder, defined as the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension that is associated with portal hypertension, with or without the presence of significant liver disease. Transthoracic echocardiography represents the single best initial tool for the diagnostic evaluation in portopulmonary hypertension, and right heart catheterization remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. Despite the lack of randomized controlled trials in portopulmonary hypertension, some therapies have demonstrated improvements in cardiopulmonary haemodynamics and right ventricular function as described in case reports and case series. Specialists should be able to recognize indications and contraindications for liver transplantation in the setting of portopulmonary hypertension, and this review focuses on the appropriate diagnostic approach and current advances in medical therapies. Recognition of patients eligible for liver transplantation is needed to improve quality of life and survival. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
    Respirology 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/resp.12455 · 3.50 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
5 Downloads
Available from
Aug 18, 2014