Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, 436 Sandels Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2011; 106(6):923-30. DOI: 10.1017/S000711451100119X
Source: PubMed


Aside from existing drug therapies, certain lifestyle and nutritional factors are known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Among the nutritional factors, dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) is the most effective fruit in both preventing and reversing bone loss. The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which dried plum reverses bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. We recruited 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. Qualified participants (n 160) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g/d) or dried apple (comparative control). Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Physical activity recall and 1-week FFQ were obtained at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to examine physical activity and dietary confounders as potential covariates. Dried plum significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover.

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Available from: K. Brummel-Smith, Feb 26, 2014
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    • "Results revealed that the addition of DP to RT did not provide additional benefits in BMD improvements . A recent study implementing DP in a group of healthy postmenopausal women showed significant improvements in lumbar spine and ulna BMD over the course of 12 months (Hooshmand et al. 2011). Perhaps if the duration of the present study was longer changes may have been seen. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8–12 repetitions at ∼60%–80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p p p p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 06/2014; 39(6). DOI:10.1139/apnm-2013-0281 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    • "These data can lead one to conclude that a biphasic response occurred in the distal femur metaphysis characterized by an initial suppression of bone turnover followed by normalization or perhaps even an increase in the activity of the existing osteoblast on the surface of the cancellous bone. Hooshmand et al. [14] reported transient changes in bone metabolism in postmenopausal women consuming DP (100 g/day) over a 1-year period. They also concluded that DP inhibited postmenopausal bone loss by suppressing the accelerated rate of bone turnover associated with ovarian hormone deficiency [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary supplementation of dried plum (DP) prevents bone loss and restores bone mass in osteopenic animal models. This study was designed to determine the effects of DP supplementation on bone metabolic activity over time using adult (6-month-old) male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40) receiving control (CON = AIN93 M) or CON+DP 25 % (w/w) diets for 4 or 12 weeks. After 4 weeks of treatment, animals consuming the DP diet had a higher whole-body bone mineral density, vertebral trabecular bone volume (BV/TV), and femoral cortical thickness compared to the CON animals. In the distal metaphysis of the femur, BV/TV was increased in the DP-treated animals, but only after 12 weeks. Bone histomorphometric analyses revealed that DP decreased osteoblast surface (67 %) and osteoclast surface (62 %) at 4 weeks, but these surfaces normalized to the CON animals by 12 weeks. Coincident with these changes, the mineralizing surface (MS/BS) and cancellous bone formation rate (BFR/BS) were reduced at 4 weeks in the DP group compared to the CON, but by 12 weeks of DP supplementation, BFR/BS (~twofold) and MS/BS (~1.7-fold) tended to be increased (p < 0.10). The relative abundance of RNA for key regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and indicators of osteoblast activity were reduced in the DP group at 4 weeks with no difference between groups at 12 weeks. These results indicate that supplementing the diet with DP initially suppressed cancellous bone turnover, but a biphasic response occurs over time, resulting in a positive effect on bone mass and structure.
    Calcified Tissue International 12/2013; 94(4). DOI:10.1007/s00223-013-9819-2 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    • "Interestingly, in that study no effect of dried plum was observed on serum and urinary markers of bone resorption. In a subsequent study, this same group of investigators [20] demonstrated that postmenopausal women consuming dried plum in conjunction with 500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D for 1 yr increased BMD at the forearm (i.e., ulna) and spine relative to those in the active control group consuming dried apple. Serum biomarkers indicated that bone turnover (i.e., BAP and tartrateresistant acid phosphatase-5b) was suppressed compared to baseline. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6 wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25 %; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6 wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone formation at the endocortical surface.
    Bone 10/2013; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.10.005 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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