Up-regulation of PPARγ, heat shock protein-27 and -72 by naringin attenuates insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, hepatic steatosis and kidney damage in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruit, is well known to possess lipid-lowering and insulin-like properties. Therefore, we assessed whether naringin treatment ameliorates insulin resistance (IR), β-cell dysfunction, hepatic steatosis and kidney damage in high-fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Wistar albino male rats were fed a HFD (55 % energy from fat and 2 % cholesterol) to develop IR and on the 10th day injected with a low dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)) to induce type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of hyperglycaemia (>13·89 mmol/l) on the 14th day, different doses of naringin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per d) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg per d) were administered orally for the next 28 d while being maintained on the HFD. Naringin significantly decreased IR, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, TNF-α, IL-6, C-reactive protein and concomitantly increased adiponectin and β-cell function in a dose-dependent manner. Increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in the serum and tissues of diabetic rats were also normalised. Moreover, naringin robustly increased PPARγ expression in liver and kidney; phosphorylated tyrosine insulin receptor substrate 1 in liver; and stress proteins heat shock protein (HSP)-27 and HSP-72 in pancreas, liver and kidney. In contrast, NF-κB expression in these tissues along with sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and liver X receptor- expressions in liver were significantly diminished. In addition, microscopic observations validated that naringin effectively rescues β-cells, hepatocytes and kidney from HFD-STZ-mediated oxidative damage and pathological alterations. Thus, this seminal study provides cogent evidence that naringin ameliorates IR, dyslipidaemia, β-cell dysfunction, hepatic steatosis and kidney damage in type 2 diabetic rats by partly regulating oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated adipocytokines production through up-regulation of PPARγ, HSP-27 and HSP-72.
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ABSTRACT: Ginger has been demonstrated to improve lipid derangements. However, its underlying triglyceride-lowering mechanisms remain unclear. Fructose overconsumption is associated with increase in hepatic de novo lipogenesis, thereby resulting in lipid derangements. Here we found that coadministration of the alcoholic extract of ginger (50 mg/kg/day, oral gavage, once daily) over 5 weeks reversed liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations and hepatic triglyceride content in rats. Plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration was also decreased. Attenuation of the increased vacuolization and Oil Red O staining area was evident on histological examination of liver in ginger-treated rats. However, ginger treatment did not affect chow intake and body weight. Further, ginger treatment suppressed fructose-stimulated overexpression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) at the mRNA and protein levels in the liver. Consequently, hepatic expression of the ChREBP-targeted lipogenic genes responsible for fatty acid biosynthesis was also downregulated. In contrast, expression of neither peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) alpha and its downstream genes, nor PPAR-gamma and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c was altered. Thus the present findings suggest that in rats, amelioration of fructose-induced fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia by ginger treatment involves modulation of the hepatic ChREBP-mediated pathway.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:570948. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by myocardial structural and functional changes, is an independent cardiomyopathy that develops in diabetic individuals. The present study was sought to investigate the effect of curcumin on modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved. An experimental diabetic rat model was induced by low dose of streptozoticin(STZ) combined with high energy intake on rats. Curcumin was orally administrated at a dose of 100 or 200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by serial echocardiography. Myocardial ultrastructure, fibrosis area and apoptosis were assessed by histopathologic analyses. Metabolic profiles, myocardial enzymes and oxidative stress were examined by biochemical tests. Inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and interrelated proteins were measured by western blot. Rats with DCM showed declined systolic myocardial performance associated with myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, which were accompanied with metabolism abnormalities, aberrant myocardial enzymes, increased AGEs (advanced glycation end products) accumulation and RAGE (receptor for AGEs) expression, elevated markers of oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, the ratio of NADP(+)/NADPH, Rac1 activity, NADPH oxidase subunits expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) ), raised inflammatory factor (TNF-α and IL-1β), enhanced apoptotic cell death (ratio of bax/bcl-2, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL), diminished Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Remarkably, curcumin attenuated myocardial dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, AGEs accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the heart of diabetic rats. The inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β was also restored by curcumin treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that curcumin may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of DCM, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Furthermore, Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway may be involved in mediating these effects.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e52013. · 3.73 Impact Factor