Transforming growth factor signalling: a common pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension and systemic sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a clinical condition characterised by the presence of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Included within the subcategorisation of PAH are heritable (HPAH) and PAH associated various conditions (APAH) including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The pathogenesis of HPAH and SSc has been linked to both a genetic predisposition and epigenetic factors. TGF-β superfamily signalling has also been implicated in the development of these conditions. In this review, we discuss the role of genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors along with dysregulation in TGF-β superfamily signalling in the pathogenesis of PAH and SSc.