Fine phenotypic and functional characterization of effector cluster of differentiation 8 positive T cells in human patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), patients develop a multilineage response to a highly restricted peptide of the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) involving autoantibody and autoreactive cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Recent data from murine models have suggested that liver-infiltrating CD8(+) cells play a critical role in biliary destruction in PBC. We hypothesized that chronic antigen stimulation of CD8(+) T cells alters effector memory T cell (T(EM) ) frequency and function similar to that seen with chronic viral infections, including failure to terminally differentiate and relative resistance to apoptosis. We have rigorously phenotyped CD8(+) T-cell subpopulations from 132 subjects, including 76 patients with PBC and 56 controls, and report a higher frequency of T(EM) cells characterized as CD45RO(high) CD57(+) CD8(high), but expressing the gut homing integrin, α4β7, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PBC. These CD8(high) T(EM) cells have reduced expression of Annexin V after TCR stimulation. Consistent with a T(EM) phenotype, CD45RO(high) CD57(+) CD8(high) T cells express higher levels of granzyme A, granzyme B, perforin, CCR5 and α4β7, and lower levels of CCR7 and CD28 than other CD8(high) T cells. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-5 produced by CD8(+) CD57(+) T lymphocytes upon in vitro T-cell receptor stimulation are increased in PBC. Histologically, CD8(+) CD57(+) T cells accumulate around the portal area in PBC. Moreover, CD8(+) CD57(+) T cells respond specifically to the major histocompatibility class I epitope of PDC-E2. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data demonstrate that CD45RO(high) CD57(+) CD8(high) T cells are a subset of terminally differentiated cytotoxic T(EM) cells, which could play a critical role in the progressive destruction of biliary epithelial cells.
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ABSTRACT: The most difficult issue in autoimmunity remains etiology. Although data exist on effector mechanisms in many autoimmune diseases, the underlying cause or causes are still generically ascribed to genetics and environmental influences. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease because of its signature antimitochondrial autoantibody (AMA), the homogeneity of clinical characteristics, and the specificity of biliary epithelial cell (BEC) pathology. Twenty years ago, we reported the cloning and identification of the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) as the immunodominant autoantigen of PBC, allowing for vigorous dissection of T and B lymphocyte responses against PDC-E2 and development of several valid experimental models. There has also been considerable study of the biology of BECs, which has included the unique properties of apoptosis in which there is exposure of PDC-E2 to the effector processes of the immune system. In this review, we present these data in the context of our proposal that the proximal cause of PBC is autoimmunity directed against well-identified mitochondrially located autoantigens in individuals with inherited deficits of immune tolerance. We present these data under the umbrella of convenient truths that support this thesis as well as some inconvenient truths that are not readily accommodated by current theory. CONCLUSION: We emphasize that the potential initiator of PBC includes inter alia particular environmental xenobiotics; pathogenesis is aided and abetted by genetic weaknesses in mechanisms of immune regulation; and subsequent multilineage immunopathology impacts upon uniquely susceptible BECs to culminate clinically in the chronic autoimmune cholangiolitis of PBC.Hepatology 03/2008; 47(2):737-45. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The E2 component of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) is the immunodominant autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. Whereas lipoylation of PDC-E2 is essential for enzymatic activity and predominates under normal conditions, other biochemical systems exist that also target the lysine residue, including acylation of fatty acids or xenobiotics and ubiquitinylation. More importantly, the immunogenicity can be affected by derivatization of the lysine residue, as the recognition of lipoylated PDC-E2 by patient autoantibodies is enhanced compared with octanoylated PDC-E2. Furthermore, our laboratory has shown that various xenobiotic modifications of a peptide representing the immunodominant region of PDC-E2 are immunoreactive against patient sera. The only purported regulatory system that prevents the accumulation of potentially autoreactive PDC-E2 is glutathionylation, in which the lysine-lipoic acid moiety is further modified with glutathione during apoptosis. Interestingly, this system is found in several cell lines, including HeLa, Jurkat, and Caco-2 cells, but not in cholangiocytes and salivary gland epithelial cells, both of which are targets for destruction in primary biliary cirrhosis. Hence, the failure of this or other regulatory system(s) may overwhelm the immune system with immunogenic PDC-E2 that can initiate the breakdown of tolerance in a genetically susceptible individual. In this review the authors survey the data available on the biochemical life of PDC-E2, with particular emphasis on the lysine residue and its known interactions with machinery involved in various posttranslational modifications.Hepatology 01/2005; 40(6):1241-8. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial autoantibodies are characteristic of the disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but the immunoreactive mitochondrial antigens have not been defined. We used a rat liver cDNA library in lambda gt 11-Amp3 to clone a 1370-base pair insert that coded for a polypeptide reactive with PBC sera. This insert was subcloned for expression into pBTA224, a plasmid vector in the same reading frame as lambda-Amp3. A positive clone, designated pRMIT, that expressed a fused polypeptide of 160 kd, was recognized by 25 of 25 sera from patients with PBC and none of 96 sera from normal persons or patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or chronic active hepatitis. This fused polypeptide was shown to correspond with the 70 kd mitochondrial autoantigen by several experiments. First, lysates of pRMIT in J101 absorbed out the 70 kd reactivity of PBC sera when probed against fractionated placental mitochondria. Second, affinity-purified antisera reactive with the fused polypeptide also reacted with the 70 kd mitochondrial antigen. Third, such affinity-purified antisera produced the characteristic anti-mitochondrial pattern of immunofluorescence on tissue sections. Finally, immunization of BALB/c mice with the fused polypeptide elicited antibodies to mitochondria. These murine antibodies reacted with the 70 kd mitochondrial protein and also produced typical mitochondrial immunofluorescence on tissue sections. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the recombinant protein, which encodes for approximately a 48 kd protein, showed no significant homologies with known proteins, and there were no homologies with mitochondrial genomic DNA. The availability of a recombinant form of the 70 kd mitochondrial autoantigen will allow several definitive questions to be addressed in PBC, including identification of B cell epitopes, T cell recognition, and a model of PBC in mice.The Journal of Immunology 06/1987; 138(10):3525-31. · 5.52 Impact Factor
Fine Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of
Effector Cluster of Differentiation 8 Positive T Cells in
Human Patients With Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Masanobu Tsuda,1,2Yoko M. Ambrosini,1Weici Zhang,1Guo-Xiang Yang,1Yugo Ando,1Guanghua Rong,1
Koichi Tsuneyama,1,3Kosuke Sumida,4Shinji Shimoda,4Christopher L. Bowlus,5Patrick S.C. Leung,1
Xiao-Song He,1Ross L. Coppel,6Aftab A. Ansari,7Zhe-Xiong Lian,1,8and M. Eric Gershwin1
In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), patients develop a multilineage response to a highly
restricted peptide of the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) involving
autoantibody and autoreactive cluster of differentiation (CD)41and CD81T-cell responses.
Recent data from murine models have suggested that liver-infiltrating CD81cells play a crit-
ical role in biliary destruction in PBC. We hypothesized that chronic antigen stimulation of
CD81T cells alters effector memory T cell (TEM) frequency and function similar to that
seen with chronic viral infections, including failure to terminally differentiate and relative
resistance to apoptosis. We have rigorously phenotyped CD81T-cell subpopulations from
132 subjects, including 76 patients with PBC and 56 controls, and report a higher frequency
of TEMcells characterized as CD45ROhighCD571CD8high, but expressing the gut homing
integrin, a4b7, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PBC. These CD8highTEMcells
have reduced expression of Annexin Vafter TCR stimulation. Consistent with a TEMpheno-
type, CD45ROhighCD571CD8highT cells express higher levels of granzyme A, granzyme B,
perforin, CCR5 and a4b7, and lower levels of CCR7 and CD28 than other CD8highT cells.
Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-5 produced by CD81CD571T lymphocytes upon in vitro
T-cell receptor stimulation are increased in PBC. Histologically, CD81CD571T cells accu-
mulate around the portal area in PBC. Moreover, CD81CD571T cells respond specifically
to the major histocompatibility class I epitope of PDC-E2. Conclusion: In conclusion, our
data demonstrate that CD45ROhighCD571CD8highT cells are a subset of terminally differ-
entiated cytotoxic TEMcells, which could play a critical role in the progressive destruction of
biliary epithelial cells. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;54:1293-1302)
bile duct biliary epithelial cells (BECs).1The serologi-
rimary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a female-pre-
dominant, organ-specific autoimmune disease
characterized by destruction of intrahepatic small
cal hallmark of PBC is the presence of antimitochon-
drial autoantibodies (AMAs) directed against the pyru-
vate dehydrogenase E2 complex (PDC-E2) located in
Abbreviations: AMA, antimitochondrial antibodies; APC, allophycocyanin; BEC, bile duct biliary epithelial cell; BSA, bovine serum albumin; CD, cluster of
differentiation; CVH, chronic viral hepatitis; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; ELC, EBI1-ligand chemokine; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;
FcR, Fc receptor; FBS, fetal bovine serum; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; HNK-1, human natural killer-1; HPLC, high-
performance liquid chromatography; IFN-c, interferon gamma; IP-10, IFN-c-inducible protein 10; IL, interleukin; IgG, immunoglobulin G; LGL, large granular
lymphocyte leukemia; mAb, monoclonal antibody; MAdCAM-1, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1; MFI, mean fluorescent intensity; NASH, nonalcoholic
steatohepatitis; NK, natural killer; PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis; PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PD-1, programmed
death 1; PDC-E2, E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase; PE, phycoerythrin; RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute; SEM, standard error of the mean; SLC,
secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine; TCR, T-cell receptor; TECK, thymus-expressed chemokine; TEM, effector memory T cell; thymus-expressed chemokine CCL25,
CC chemokine ligand 25; TIM-3, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3.
From the1Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA;2Department of Emergency and Critical Care
Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan;3Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research,
University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan;4Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka 812-8582,
Japan;5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA;6Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton,
Australia;7Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; and8Institute of Immunology and School of Life Sciences, University of Science
and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China.
Received January 31, 2011; accepted June 18, 2011.
Financial support for this work was provided by the National Institutes of Health (grant DK39588; Bethesda, MD).
frequency of cluster of differentiation (CD)4þand
CD8þT-cell infiltrates have been noted within the
portal tracts of the PBC liver, which strongly suggests
that these cells are involved in the pathogenesis of
PBC.5Indeed, PDC-E2-specific autoreactive CD4þT
and CD8þT cells have been identified both in periph-
eral blood and, at much higher levels, in the liver of
PBC patients.6-8The dominant CD4þand CD8þ
T-cell epitopes on PDC-E2 have been mapped.6-8
Although both CD4þand CD8þT cells are present
within portal tract infiltrates, there is a growing body
of data that suggests a more direct role of cytotoxic
CD8þT cells in biliary destruction.9-11The study of
effector pathways is a particularly challenging problem
in human autoimmunity. For one thing, the majority
of effector pathways are likely to be mediated by non-
specific bystander cells recruited during inflammation.
For another, it has been difficult to identify subpopula-
tions of cells by phenotype and thence link such data
to functionality. Our laboratory has focused attention
on effector T-cell populations, using a variety of tech-
nologies, and has highlighted the important role of T
cells in this and similar pathways.
In this study, we took advantage of newer reagents,
including cell-surface markers, that are associated with
CD8higheffector memory T cells (TEM), organ- and tis-
sue-specific homing, and alterations in susceptibility to
apoptosis. Indeed, we report that patients with PBC not
highCD57þCD8highT cells, compared to controls, but
also that such cells have increased a4b7 expression with
decreased expression of CCR7 and CD28, compared to
other CD8highT cells. Furthermore, this T-cell subset
has increased the production of granzyme A, granzyme
B, and perforin, compared with other CD8highT cells,
and, interestingly, have decreased stimulation-induced
apoptosis. Furthermore, interferon gamma (IFN-c) and
interleukin (IL)-5 produced by CD8þCD57þT lym-
phocytes upon in vitro T-cell-receptor (TCR) stimulation
areincreased in PBC
CD8þCD57þT cells accumulate around the portal area
in the liver of PBC patients. Moreover, purified
CD8þCD57þT cells from PBC patients specifically
respond to the major histocompatibility class I restricted
epitope of PDC-E2. These data have implications for
understanding CD8 effector pathways in this autoim-
mune disease.We submit
highCD57þCD8highT cells are a subset of cytotoxic
memory cells, which play a critical role in the chronic,
progressive destruction of BECs in PBC.
Materials and Methods
Subjects. Heparinized (Vacutainer; BD Biosciences,
Franklin Lakes, NJ) peripheral blood samples were
obtained from 76 PBC patients (59.0 6 1.0 years; mean
6 standard error of the mean [SEM]) and 56 age-
matched healthy controls (54.8 6 1.5 years). The diag-
nosis of PBC was based on internationally accepted crite-
ria.12Stage of disease was established according to Lud-
wig et al..13In the present study, 50 of 76 (65.8%)
patients with PBC were stage I or II and 22 of 76
(28.9%) were III or IV, whereas 5 of 76 (6.6%) patients
were AMA negative (Table 1). We did not observe any
difference between AMA-positive and -negative patients;
hence, the data are combined herein. The study was
approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Uni-
versity of California at Davis (Davis, CA), and all subjects
provided written, informed consent prior to enrollment.
Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Isolation. Per-
ipheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from all
subjects were isolated by density gradient using Histo-
paque-1077 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO)
under endotoxin-free conditions. PBMCs were resus-
pended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (Mediatech
Inc., Herndon, VA), containing 0.5% bovine serum al-
bumin (BSA) (Fraction V, OmniPur; EMD Chemicals
Inc., Gibbstown, NJ) and 0.05% ethylenediaminetetra-
acetic acid (EDTA). The viability of cells was >98%,
which was confirmed using trypan blue dye exclusion.
Evaluation of Cell Phenotypes. The polychromatic
phenotypic analysis of PBMCs was carried out on a
FACScan flow cytometer (BD Immunocytometry Sys-
tems, San Jose, CA) upgraded for the detection of five
colors by Cytek Development (Fremont, CA). Cells
were stained with different combinations of fluoro-
chrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs),
including CCR5, CD8b, CCR7, and CD45RO (BD
Pharmingen, San Diego, CA), CCR9 (R&D Systems,
Minneapolis, MN), CD56, CXCR3, CD57, CD8a,
CD45RO, CD28, and CD16 (BioLegend, San Diego,
Address reprint requests to: M. Eric Gershwin, M.D., Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of
Medicine, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: email@example.com; fax: 530-752-4669.
View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com.
Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
C 2011 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
1294TSUDA ET AL.HEPATOLOGY, October 2011
CA), and CCR7 (eBioscience, San Diego, CA). The
allophycocyanin (APC)-conjugated anti-a4b7 was pro-
duced in our laboratory. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) iso-
type controls with matching conjugates for each anti-
body were used as negative controls. PBMCs were
resuspended in staining buffer (0.2% BSA, 0.04%
EDTA, and 0.05% sodium azide in PBS), divided into
25-lL aliquots, and incubated with antihuman Fc re-
ceptor (FcR) blocking reagent (eBioscience) for 15
minutes at 4?C. Cells were then washed and stained
with the antibody cocktails for 30 minutes at 4?C.
Cells were washed once with PBS containing 0.2%
BSA. For intracellular staining, cells were first stained
PerCP-anti-CD8a (BioLegend), APCe780-anti-CCR7
(eBioscience), and APC-anti-CD45RO (BioLegend),
then fixed and permeabilized with BD Cytofix/Cyto-
perm solution (BD Pharmingen) for 15 minutes at
4?C. Subsequently, intracellular staining was performed
AF488-labeled anti-Perforin (BioLegend), or fluorescein
isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled antigranzyme B (BD
Pharmingen) or IgG isotype controls. After staining,
cells were washed and fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde
in PBS. Acquired data were analyzed with Cellquest
PRO software (BD Immunocytometry Systems).
Cells. CD8þT cells were isolated with RosetteSepTM
human CD8þT cell enrichment cocktails (StemCell
Technologies, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada),
following the manufacturer’s instructions, then resus-
pended in PBS containing 2% fetal bovine serum
(FBS). The CD57þCD8þT-cell subset was isolated
from the enriched CD8þT cells using human CD57
MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA). An aliquot
of the isolated CD57þpopulation was analyzed for
purity with flow cytometry, which was always >92%.
Aliquots of CD57þCD8þT cells (2 ? 105) were cul-
tured in 96-well, round-bottomed plates in 200 lL of
Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium with
10% heat-inactivated FBS (Gibco-Invitrogen Corp.,
Grand Island, NY), 100 lg/mL of streptomycin, 100
U/mL of penicillin, and 0.5 lg/mL each of anti-CD3
(BioLegend) and anti-CD28 (BioLegend). Cells were
incubated for 5 days at 37?C in a humidified 5% CO2
incubator, then centrifuged. The supernatant was col-
lected for cytokine analysis.
CD57þCD8þT cells was analyzed with enzyme-
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for IFN-c
(R&D Systems), granzyme A (Bender MedSystems,
Vienna, Austria), and IL-5 (BioLegend).
Apoptosis. To assess the relative susceptibility of in
vitro stimulated CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells
to apoptosis, 1 ? 106PBMCs were cultured in 48-
well, flat-bottomed plates in 1 mL of RPMI 1640
(Gibco-Invitrogen Corp.), supplemented with 10%
heat-inactivated FBS, 100 lg/mL of streptomycin, 100
U/mL of penicillin, 5 lg/mL of anti-CD3 (Bio-
Legend), and 5 lg/mL of anti-CD28 (BioLegend).
Cultures were incubated at 37?C in 5% CO2. After
48 hours of culturing, cells were washed twice with
0.2% BSA in PBS, and the frequency of cells under-
going apoptosis was determined with flow cytometry,
using FITC-conjugated anti-Annexin-V (BD Pharmin-
gen), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells
were also stained with Fas (CD95), programmed death
1 (PD-1) (Biolegend), and T-cell immunoglobulin
mucin-3 (TIM-3) (eBioscience) after culture.
Synthetic Peptide Assay. PBMC from a nested
study, including 3 patients with PBC (PBC 1-3) who
were human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2.1 and 6
other patients with PBC (PBC 4-9) who had other
class I alleles, were isolated. As controls, PBMCs from
4 healthy HLA A2.1 controls and 5 HLA A2.1 nega-
tive were collected. The peptide, 159-167 of PDC-E2
(KLSEGDLLA), was synthesized by F-moc chemistry
(Model Synergy; Applied Biosystems Inc., Foster City,
CA). This peptide was purified by reverse-phase high-
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the
purity was more than 80% as determined by HPLC
analysis. Aliquots ofCD57þCD8þ
CD57?CD8þT cells (2 ? 105) were cultured in the
presence of autologous irradiated (3,000 rad) APC (2
? 105), with or without the 159-167 synthetic pep-
tide, for 5 days. The supernatant was collected for
cytokine analysis. Controls were used throughout all
assays. Supernatant from the cultured cells was ana-
lyzed by ELISA for IFN-c (R&D Systems).
Immunohistochemistry. Liver sections were immu-
nostained using our standard microwave protocol, as
previously described.14,15All tissues were fixed in 10%
neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin,
then 4-lm-thick sections were cut from each paraffin
Table 1. Clinical Characteristics of PBC Patients*
PBC (n 5 76)AMA PositiveAMA Negative Age: 59.0 6 1.0
n ¼ 32
n ¼ 15
n ¼ 9
n ¼ 11
n ¼ 4
n ¼ 1
n ¼ 2
n ¼ 1
n ¼ 1
Early stage (65.8%)
Late stage (28.9%)
*There were 56 controls (age, 54.8 6 1.5 years).
Abbreviations: PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis; AMA, antimitochondrial antibodies.
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011TSUDA ET AL.1295
block from 4 patients with PBC, 3 with chronic viral
hepatitis (CVH), and 1 with nonalcoholic steatohepati-
tis (NASH). The following antibodies were used for the
detection of CD8 and CD57 in human liver specimens:
rabbit polyclonal antibody against CD57 (Novus Bio-
logicals, Littleton, CO), antihuman CD8 antibody
(mAb; DAKO, Glostrup, Denmark) and Envision-
peroxidase (DAKO). In all samples, predetermined opti-
mal dilutions were used, and positive and negative sam-
ples were included with each assay, and the data were
interpreted by a ‘‘blinded’’ pathologist (K.T.).
Statistical Analysis. The percentages of CD8high
T-cell subsets that express individual cell markers in
PBC patients and healthy controls were expressed as
mean 6 SEM and compared with the two-tailed
Mann-Whitney U test. A P value <0.05 was consid-
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT-cell subset and other
CD8highT-cell subsets were analyzed using a two-tailed
Wilcoxon matched-pairs test.
Increased Frequency of CD45ROhighCD571CD8high
T Cells in Peripheral Blood of PBC Patients. There
were no significant differences observed in the mean
frequencies of CD8highT cells in the PBMC and
CD57þcells in CD8highT cells of PBC patients, com-
pared with control subjects (Fig. 1). However, the fre-
quency of CD45ROhighCD57þcells were significantly
higher in CD8highT cells of PBC patients (7.15% 6
0.77%), in particular patients at earlier disease stages
(8.25% 6 1.16%), compared with healthy controls
(4.10% 6 0.37%; P < 0.0005) (Fig. 2). The
include natural killer (NK) cells, as the vast majority
of these cells were CD3þ(99.9% 6 0.14%) and
CD16?(98.69% 6 0.69%) (data not shown).
Increased Expression of a4b7highand Decreased
CD28 on CD45ROhighCD571CD8highT Cells in
PBC Patient. To further characterize the CD45RO-
highCD57þCD8highT-cell subset, these cells were ana-
lyzed for their expression of a panel of phenotypic
markers,including multiple chemokine
a4b7 integrin, and the costimulatory molecule, CD28.
Results of these studies (Fig. 3) demonstrate that
highCD57þCD8highsubset expressing the gut homing
a4b7highintegrin was significantly higher in PBC
patients (18.51% 6 1.94%) than that in controls
(11.69% 6 1.41%; P < 0.03) and decreased the
Fig. 1. Analysis of the frequencies of CD8highCD57þcells in lym-
phocyte population from PBC patients and healthy subjects. Left pan-
els: representative dot plot of gated lymphocyte population. Right
panels: percentage of the gated CD8highin PBMC (upper panel) or
CD57þin CD8highlymphocytes (lower panel) populations in healthy
controls (cont), all PBC patients (PBC), and PBC patients at early
stages (I/II) and late stages (III/IV). Bars denote mean percentages.
Fig. 2. Analysis of the frequency of the CD57þand CD45ROhigh
cells in CD8highlymphocytes from PBC patients and healthy subjects.
Top panels: representative dot plots of CD8highgated lymphocyte pop-
ulation from a healthy control and a patient with PBC. Bottom panel:
comparison of the mean percentages of the gated CD45ROhighCD57þ
population in CD8highlymphocytes, among healthy controls (cont), all
PBC patients (PBC), and PBC patients at early stages (I/II) and late
stages (III/IV). Bars denote mean percentages. ***P < 0.001.
1296 TSUDA ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, October 2011
expression of CD28 in early-stage PBC patients
(25.01% 6 5.81%) than controls (58.76% 6 9.36%;
P < 0.03), there were no significant differences in the
frequencies of the cells expressing the chemokine
receptors, CXCR3 (a receptor for IFN-c-inducible pro-
tein 10 [IP-10] and the monokine, Mig), CCR5 (a
receptor for RANTES and MIP-1a,b), and CCR7 (a
receptor for EBI1-ligand chemokine [ELC] and sec-
ondary lymphoid tissue chemokine [SLC]), compared
with controls. Of interest, there was no difference in
the frequencies of this CD8highsubset that expressed
the gut-homing chemokine receptor, CCR9, a receptor
for thymus-expressed chemokine (TECK)/CC chemo-
kine ligand 25 (thymus-expressed chemokine CCL25).
Altered Granzyme and Perforin Expression in
patients, we have compared phenotypes of CD45RO-
highCD57þCD8highT cells to other CD8highT cells. In
addition to the analysis of homing and chemokine
receptors, we also studied the cytotoxic potential of the
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highsubset of T cells. Interest-
ingly, though there was a significant increased expression
of CCR5 and a4b7high, and significantly decreased
highCD57þCD8highT cells, compared to other CD8high
T cells in PBC patients, there was no difference
observed in a4b7highand CD28 expressions in healthy
controls (Fig. 4A,C). CCR5, CCR7, granzyme A, gran-
zyme B, and perforin demonstrated a similar pheno-
typic pattern in PBC and healthy controls (data not
shown). In addition, relative to other CD8highT cells,
T Cells. In PBC
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells had increased pro-
duction of granzyme A (P < 0.001), granzyme B (P <
0.001), and perforin (P < 0.001), suggesting their
strong cytotoxic effector functions (Fig. 4B).
The CD45ROhighCD571CD8highT Cells Are Not
Susceptible to Apoptosis Upon Anti-CD3 Stim-
ulation. CD57þT cells have previously been demon-
strated to be susceptible to apoptosis during chronic anti-
Therefore, we determined the
relative susceptibility of CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT
cells from PBC patients to undergo apoptosis. PBMCs
from PBC patients and controls were stimulated by anti-
CD3/28 for 48 hours, then examined for Annexin V
expression by the CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells.
Interestingly, Annexin V expression was decreased in
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells from PBC patients
(35.23% 6 3.07%), specifically those with early disease
stages (32.68% 6 4.02%), compared with healthy con-
trols (46.18% 6 1.51%; P < 0.03) (Fig. 5A). We further
investigated the expression of Fas, TIM-3, and PD-1, and
found that PD-1 expression was significantly decreased in
PBC patients (51.8% 6 6.54%), compared to that in
healthy controls (75.03% 6 7.12%; P < 0.02) (Fig. 5A).
This reduced susceptibility to stimulation-induced apo-
ptosis was not observed in other CD8highT cells, suggest-
ing a unique apoptosis resistance in the CD45RO-
highCD57þCD8highT cells from PBC patients.
T-Cell Subset From PBC
Patients Produce Increased Levels of IL-5, IFN-c,
and Granzyme A. To investigate the cytokine profile
T cells, CD57þCD8þ
Fig. 3. Analysis of the expres-
lymphocytes from healthy controls
(cont), all PBC patients (PBC), and
PBC patients at early stages (I/II)
denote the mean percentages. *P
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011 TSUDA ET AL.1297
isolated from PBC patients and healthy controls were
stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3/28 for 5 days. Super-
natants were collected and analyzed for levels of secreted
IFN-c, IL-5, and granzyme A. As shown in Fig. 6,
CD57þCD8þT cells from PBC patients secreted
increased levels of IL-5 (157.4 6 47.7 pg/mL), com-
pared with controls (30.0 6 7.7 pg/mL; P < 0.001).
No significant difference was observed in the levels of
IFN-c and granzyme A.
CD81CD571Cells Were Infiltrated in Hepatic
Portal Track and Respond to the HLA-A2-Restricted
CTL Epitope, PDC-E2. CD57þcells coexisted in the
area of CD8þinfiltration (i.e., were CD8þCD57þ
double positive). In contrast, it was uncommon to
have CD57þcoexpression detected in CD8þ-infiltrat-
ing control livers (Fig. 7A). To further assess the preva-
lence of autoreactive T cells, we investigated the differ-
ence in response with the HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic
T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. CD8þCD57þcells from
HLA-A2.1-positive PBC patients (124.3 6 16.5 pg/ml)
had increased production of IFN-c upon PDC-E2 stim-
ulation, compared to CD8þCD57þcells from HLA-
A2.1-positive healthy controls (39.7 6 10.1 pg/ml); as
expected, there was no significant difference between
PBC non-HLA-A2.1 patients versus controls (Fig. 7B).
In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive
phenotypic and functional characterization of CD8þT
cells, which is believed to be directly responsible for
thedestructionof BECs in PBC.Ourresults
Fig. 4. Comparison of phenotypes between CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells and other CD8highT cells. The other CD8highT cells include
CD45RO? to lowCD57þCD8highand CD57?CD8highcells. Bars denote mean percentages. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001. (A) Cell-sur-
face markers in PBC. (B) Intracellular markers in PBC. (C) Cell-surface markers in healthy control.
1298 TSUDA ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, October 2011
demonstrate the following: (1) PBC patients had an
increased frequency of CD45ROhighCD57þcells in
CD8highT cells, compared with age-matched healthy
controls; (2) CD45ROhighCD57þCD8high
from PBC patients more frequently expressed a4b7
and demonstrated reduced CD28 expression, com-
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highsubset had increased fre-
quency of CCR5þand a4b7highcells, decreased fre-
quency of CCR7þand CD28þcells, and expressed
increased levels of granzyme A, B, and perforin, in
comparison to other CD8highT cells, consistent with
an effector memory phenotype; (4) upon CD3 stimu-
lation, CD57þCD8þT cells from PBC patients were
less prone to apoptosis while having secreted increased
levelsofIL-5 than healthy
CD57þCD8þT cells infiltrate the PBC liver portal
area; this cell population demonstrates autoreactivity
against the HLA-A2.1, the restricted epitope.
It is of interest to note that the CD57þCD8þT-cell
subset has been previously described as possessing both
cytotoxic and regulatory functions.17-21In our present
study, the results suggest that a subpopulation of the
highCD57þCD8highT cells, is a subset of cytotoxic
effector memory cells that could be critical in cell-
mediated immune response in PBC. The CD57 anti-
gen is a glycoepitope that was first described on
human NK 1 (HNK-1) cells.22An increase in the fre-
quency of CD57þT cells has been reported in
patients after bone marrow and solid organ trans-
plants,23,24in rheumatoid arthritis,25,26and acquired
immune deficiency patients.27These studies have sug-
gested a role for such CD57þT cells in the immuno-
logical abnormalities manifested in such diseases.
Although the frequency of the CD8þCD57þT cells
in normal hosts ranges from 5% to 20%,28the fre-
Although several studies have suggested an augmented
cytotoxic ability of the CD8þCD57þT cell,19-21there
is a paucity of data on this CD8þCD57þT-cell popu-
lation in PBC.
The present results provide further insights into the
potential mechanisms by which CD8þcytotoxic T
cells serve as effector cells in the pathogenesis of
PBC.7,9,11We demonstrate herein that the CD45RO-
highsubset of CD57þCD8highcells were more resistant
to stimulation-induced apoptosis, as compared to their
counterparts, in the control subjects, which is similar
to the finding that the CD57þCD8þT-cell population
in PBMCs from patients with large granular lympho-
cyte leukemia (LGL) were resistant to Fas-stimulated
apoptosis (31).31This resistance to apoptosis is dem-
onstrated by lower expression of Annexin V and PD-1.
PD-1/PD-L interaction plays a critical role in CD8þ
T-cell tolerance32; previous work has demonstrated
that a decrease in PD-1 signaling can generate murine
Fig. 5. Comparison of the expression of Annexin V, Fas, TIM-3, and
PD-1 on CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells and other CD8highT lym-
phocytes between PBC patients and healthy subjects. PBMCs were
stimulated with anti-CD3/28, then stained for Annexin V, Fas, TIM-3,
and PD-1. (A) Percentage of Annexin V, TIM-3, and PD-1-positive cells
or mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of Fas in CD45ROhighCD57þCD8high
T cells from healthy controls (cont), all PBC patients (PBC), and PBC
patients at early stages (I/II) and late stages (III/IV). (B) Percentage
of Annexin V, TIM-3, and PD-1 positive cells or MFI of Fas in other
CD8highT cells. See Fig. 4 legend for the definition of other CD8high
T-cell populations. Bars denote mean percentages. *P < 0.05.
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011 TSUDA ET AL.1299
We reasoned that examination of chemokine recep-
tors and the integrin, a4b7, which provide homing
signals for circulating leukocytes to migrate to disease-
specific tissues, would provide evidence that these cir-
culating cells reflect the immune response in the target
organ.34T-cell recruitment to the liver is orchestrated
by a series of adhesion molecules and homing chemo-
kines.35We demonstrate herein that the CD45ROhigh
expressed the homing integrin, a4b7. Although the
integrin, a4b7, and chemokine receptor, CCR9, are
typically associated with gut-homing phenotypes, they
have also been shown to mediate the adhesion of liver-
infiltrating lymphocytes through the expression of their
cognate ligands. Specifically, hepatic expression of the
a4b7 ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1
(MAdCAM-1), has been demonstrated in a variety of
liver diseases, including PBC.35The CCR9 ligand and
expressed primarily by epithelial cells that line the small
intestine and has also been shown to be expressed on
hepatic endothelial cells of patients with primary scleros-
ing cholangitis, but, in contrast to MAdCAM-1, not in
PBC.36Thus, it is not surprising that, in our study, there
was an increased frequency of CD45ROhighCD57þCD8-
highT cells expressing a4b7, but not CCR9.
In a murine model of graft-versus-host disease,
which develops both portal hepatitis and nonsuppura-
tive destructive cholangitis similar to PBC, CCR5-
expressing CD8þT cells migrate into the portal areas
of the liver and play a significant role in causing liver
The increased expression of CCR5 by
CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells, but not other
highCD57þCD8highT cells play an active role as effec-
tor cells during bile duct destruction in PBC. The
expression of CD28 decreases when CD8þT cells dif-
ferentiate from memory to effector CD8þT cells.38
The decrease in CD28 expression observed in PBC,
especially in early-stage PBC patients, implicates strong
Also, our observation of decreased CCR7 expression
on CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT cells, compared
with other CD8highT cells, is consistent with the
chemokine, CCL25, is
Fig. 7. (A) Liver immunohistochemistry from representative PBC and
CVH patients. Top and middle rows demonstrate 100% near complete
(top row) to 70% (middle row) CD57-positive staining within the CD8-
positive area in PBC; only minor CD57-positive staining was detected
within the CD8-positive area in CVH, as shown in the bottom row. (B)
IFN-c production upon PDC-E2 peptide stimulation. Data from HLA-
A2.1-positive PBC patients (n ¼ 3) and healthy controls (n ¼ 4) are
shown. Left bar graphs are without peptide stimulation, and right bar
graphs are with peptide stimulation.
Fig. 6. Production of IFN-c, IL-5,
and granzyme A by CD57þCD8þT
healthy controls. Aliquots of iso-
lated CD57þCD8þT cells from
PBC patients (n ¼ 7) and healthy
controls (n ¼ 8) were cultured in
duplicates in the presence of anti-
CD3/28 (0.5 lg/mL) for 5 days.
***P < 0.001.
1300 TSUDA ET AL.HEPATOLOGY, October 2011
theory that these cells are effector memory cells, as
opposed to CCR7þcentral memory cells, which
express lymph-node homing receptors and lack imme-
diate effector function.39It is reasoned that the
lymph-node homing CD8highT cells may become
mobilized to the periphery and acquire a different
spectrum of cell-surface molecules while decreasing the
levels of CCR7 expression during this process.
Our data demonstrate an increased secretion of IL-5
by CD57þCD8þT cells, compared with a similar
population from controls. Increased IL-5 has also been
found in other studies of CD8þCD57þT lympho-
cytes.40The transcripts for both Th1- and Th2-type
cytokines, such as INF-c, IL-2, and IL-5, are up-
regulated in the blood and liver of PBC,41,42and IL-5
promotes the differentiation of activated B cells into
Ig-producing cells and augments both IgM and IgA
production.43,44Moreover, IL-5 has potent, specific
effects on eosinophil activation and degranulation.45,46
Eosinophilia has been demonstrated in PBC patients,
and eosinophil cytotoxic products, such as major basic
protein, have been localized to the periportal regions
of the patient liver.42,47Our data demonstrate that
CD57þCD8þT cells are a potential source of IL-5 dur-
ing the chronic stages of PBC, exacerbating the destruc-
tion of BECs. CD57þCD8þ, in particular CD45RO-
highCD57þCD8high, T cells may also contribute to
continuous AMA production in PBC.
Collectively, our data demonstrate that CD57þ
CD8highT cells are a subset of cytotoxic memory T
cells that include specific autoreactive CD8þT cells.
Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the
increased frequency of CD45ROhighCD57þCD8highT
cells with the unique increased expression of a4b7
integrin and CCR5 as well as resistance to apoptosis
in PBC PBMCs; this reflects a role of CD45RO-
highCD57þCD8highT cells as a CD8þsubpopulation
contributing to the progressive destruction of small
bile ducts. We do not imply that the data herein will
be unique only to patients with PBC and, indeed,
may well be a property of multiple other autoimmune
diseases, obviously with different antigenic specificity
and tissue-specific homing receptors. We do suggest,
however, that further studies focused on these effector
mechanisms will enable the dissection of the role of
CD8þsubpopulations in PBC.
Kawata, Dr. Katsunori Yoshida, and Dr. Yuki Moritoki
for technical support in this experiment. We also
thank Ms. Nikki Phipps for support in preparing this
The authors thank Dr. Kazuhito
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