A role for nyctalopin, a small leucine-rich repeat protein, in localizing the TRP melastatin 1 channel to retinal depolarizing bipolar cell dendrites.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2011; 31(27):10060-6. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1014-11.2011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Expression of channels to specific neuronal sites can critically impact their function and regulation. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying this targeting and intracellular trafficking of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels remain poorly understood, and identifying proteins involved in these processes will provide insight into underlying mechanisms. Vision is dependent on the normal function of retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs), which couple a metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 to the TRP melastatin 1 (TRPM1) channel to transmit signals from photoreceptors. We report that the extracellular membrane-attached protein nyctalopin is required for the normal expression of TRPM1 on the dendrites of DBCs in mus musculus. Biochemical and genetic data indicate that nyctalopin and TRPM1 interact directly, suggesting that nyctalopin is acting as an accessory TRP channel subunit critical for proper channel localization to the synapse.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parallel visual pathways are initiated at the first retinal synapse by signaling between the rod and cone photoreceptors and two general classes of bipolar cells. For normal function, ON or depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) require the G-protein-coupled receptor, mGluR6, an intact G-protein-coupled cascade and the transient receptor potential melastatin 1 (TRPM1) cation channel. In addition, another seven transmembrane protein, GPR179, is required for DBC function and recruits the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, RGS7 and RGS11, to the dendritic tips of the DBCs. Here we use the Gpr179(nob5) mouse, which lacks GPR179 and has a no b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) phenotype, to demonstrate that despite the absence of both GPR179 and RGS7/RGS11, a small dark-adapted ERG b-wave remains and can be enhanced with long duration flashes. Consistent with the ERG, the mGluR6-mediated gating of TRPM1 can be evoked pharmacologically in Gpr179(nob5) and RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) rod BCs if strong stimulation conditions are used. In contrast, direct gating of TRPM1 by capsaicin in RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) and WT rod BCs is similar, but severely compromised in Gpr179(nob5) rod BCs. Noise and standing current analyses indicate that the remaining channels in Gpr179(nob5) and RGS7(-/-)/RGS11(-/-) rod BCs have a very low open probability. We propose that GPR179 along with RGS7 and RGS11 controls the ability of the mGluR6 cascade to gate TRPM1. In addition to its role in localizing RGS7 and RGS11 to the dendritic tips, GPR179 via a direct interaction with the TRPM1 channel alters its ability to be gated directly by capsaicin.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(18):6334-6343. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4044-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive retinal disorder that shows genetic and clinical heterogeneity. CSNB is inherited as an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked recessive trait and shows a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Clinically, CSNB is classified as the Riggs type and the Schubert-Bornschein type. The latter form is further sub-classified into complete and incomplete forms based on specific waveforms on the electroretinogram (ERG). There are no molecular genetic data for CSNB in the Indian population. Therefore, we present for the first time molecular profiling of eight families with complete CSNB (cCSNB). The index patients and their other affected family members were comprehensively evaluated for the phenotype, including complete ophthalmic evaluation, ERG, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and color vision test. The known gene defects for cCSNB, LRIT3, TRPM1, GRM6, GPR179, and NYX, were screened by PCR direct sequencing. Bioinformatic analyses were performed using SIFT and PolyPhen for the identified missense mutations. All eight affected index patients and affected family members were identified as having cCSNB based on their ERG waveforms. Mutations in the TRPM1 gene were identified in six index patients. The two remaining index patients each carried a GPR179 and GRM6 mutation. Seven of the patients revealed homozygous mutations, while one patient showed a compound heterozygous mutation. Six of the eight mutations identified are novel. This is the first report on molecular profiling of candidate genes in CSNB in an Indian cohort. As shown for other cohorts, TRPM1 seems to be a major gene defect in patients with cCSNB in India.
    Molecular vision 03/2014; 20:341-51. · 2.25 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential melastatin-1 (TRPM1) is essential for the light-induced depolarization of retinal ON-bipolar cells. TRPM1 likely forms a multimeric channel complex, though almost nothing is known about the structure or subunit composition of channels formed by TRPM1 or any of its close relatives. Recombinant TRPM1 was robustly expressed in insect cells, but only a small fraction was localized to the plasma membrane. Similar intracellular localization was observed when TRPM1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. TRPM1 was affinity purified from Sf9 cells and complexed with amphipol, followed by detergent removal. In blue native gels and size exclusion chromatography, TRPM1 migrated with a mobility consistent with detergent- or amphipol-bound dimers. Cross-linking experiments were also consistent with a dimeric subunit stoichiometry, and cryo-electron microscopy and single particle analysis without symmetry imposition yielded a model with approximate two-fold symmetrical features. Finally, electron microscopy of TRPM1/antibody complexes revealed a large particle which can accommodate TRPM1 and two antibody molecules. Taken together, these data indicate that purified TRPM1 is mostly dimeric. The three-dimensional structure of TRPM1 dimers is characterized by a small putative transmembrane domain and a larger domain with a hollow cavity. Since dimers are likely not functional ion channels, these results suggest that additional partner subunits participate in forming the transduction channel required for dim light vision and the ON pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; 289(39). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.593780 · 4.60 Impact Factor


Available from
Jan 18, 2015