Mentally ill Medicare patients less likely than others to receive certain types of surgery.
ABSTRACT Mentally ill people may face barriers to receiving elective surgical procedures as a result of societal stigma and the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal deficits associated with mental illness. Using data from a cohort of elderly Medicare beneficiaries in 2007, we examined whether the mentally ill have less access than people without mental illness to several common procedures that are typically not for emergencies and are performed at the discretion of the provider and the patient. Results suggest that Medicare patients with mental illness are 30-70 percent less likely than others to receive these "referral-sensitive" surgical procedures. Those who did undergo an elective procedure generally experienced poorer outcomes both in the hospital and after discharge. Efforts to improve access to and outcomes of nonpsychiatric care for mentally ill patients are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review of studies of interventions that integrated medical and mental health care to improve general medical outcomes in individuals with serious mental illness. English-language publications in MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library, from database inception through January 18, 2013, were searched using terms for our diagnoses of interest, a broad set of terms for care models, and a set of terms for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental design. Bibliographies of included articles were examined for additional sources. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched using the terms for our diagnoses of interest (serious mental illness,SMI,bipolar disorder,schizophrenia,orschizoaffective disorder) to assess for evidence of publication bias and ongoing studies. 4 RCTs were included from 1,729 articles reviewed. Inclusion criteria were RCT or quasi-experimental design; adult outpatient population with 25% or greater carrying a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder; intervention with a stated goal to improve medical outcomes through integration of care, using a comparator of usual care or other quality improvement strategy; and outcomes assessing process of care, clinical outcomes, or physical functioning. A trained researcher abstracted the following data from the included articles: study design, funding source, setting, population characteristics, eligibility and exclusion criteria, number of subjects and providers, intervention(s), comparison(s), length of follow-up, and outcome(s). These abstracted data were then overread by a second reviewer. Of the 4 studies reviewed, 2 good-quality studies (according to the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) that evaluated processes of preventive and chronic disease care demonstrated positive effects of integrated care. Specifically, integrated care interventions were associated with increased rates of immunization and screening. All 4 RCTs evaluated changes in physical functioning, with mixed results: 2 studies demonstrated small improvements in the physical health component of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and 2 studies demonstrated no significant difference in SF-36 scores. No studies reported on clinical outcomes related to preventive care or chronic medical care. Integrated care models have positive effects on processes of preventive and chronic disease care but have inconsistent effects on physical functioning for individuals with serious mental illness. The relatively small number of trials and limited range of treatment models tested and outcomes reported point to the need for additional study in this important area.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 08/2013; 74(8):e754-64. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Older persons with coronary heart disease have reduced access to appropriate medical and surgical services if they are also mentally ill. This study determined whether difference exists in access to hospitals that provide on-site invasive cardiac procedures among a national cohort of Medicare acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with and without comorbid mental illness, and its implications for subsequent procedure use. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of Medicare claims for initial AMI admissions between January and September 2007. Hospital service availability was obtained from annual survey data. Logistic regression estimated the associations of mental illness with admission to hospitals with any invasive cardiac services (diagnostic catheterization, coronary angioplasty, or bypass surgery) and post-admission care patterns and outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of mentally ill AMI patients (n = 28,888) versus 87 percent of other AMI patients (n = 73,895) were initially admitted to hospitals with invasive cardiac facilities [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, p < .001]. Admission to such hospitals was associated with overall higher rate of procedure use within 90 days of admission and improved 30-days readmission and mortality rates. However, irrespective of on-site service availability of the admitting hospital, mentally ill patients were one half as likely to receive invasive procedures (adjusted OR approximately 0.5, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among Medicare patients with AMI, those with comorbid mental illness were less likely to be admitted to hospitals with on-site invasive cardiac services. Mental illness was associated with reduced cardiac procedure use within each type of admitting hospitals (with on-site invasive cardiac services or not).Health Services Research 11/2012; · 2.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: People with mental disorder experience a heavy burden of physical ill-health. This, alongside structural health-system changes, means more people with mental disorder are being cared for in non-psychiatric hospitals. This article reports on 32 studies that have investigated the care and outcomes of people with comorbid mental and physical health problems in non-psychiatric hospitals. Prevalence of mental disorder ranged between 4%-46%, and rates of psychiatric referral was 2%-10%. The receipt of invasive cardiac procedures was markedly reduced for those with mental disorder. Likelihood of experiencing an adverse event, post-operative complication or increased length of stay was also elevated for those with mental disorder.Archives of psychiatric nursing 04/2014; 28(2):80-86. · 0.90 Impact Factor