Complex analysis of a recurrent pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249-7331, USA.
Human pathology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 07/2011; 43(1):121-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.humpath.2011.02.023
Source: PubMed


Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts is a recently recognized, low-grade mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain lineage. It is characterized by clusters of ectatic, fibrin-lined, thin-walled vessels surrounded by pleomorphic but mitotically inert spindled cells with frequent intranuclear inclusions and a variable inflammatory component. Here, we report a case of recurrent pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor in a 37-year-old white woman. Touch imprint cytologic analysis revealed oval and spindled cells with fine chromatin, occasional prominent intranuclear inclusions, and intracytoplasmic pigment. The histologic features of the cells constituting the bulk of tumor were those characteristic of a putative precursor lesion ("early pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor") as well as another recently described entity known as hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion. Cytogenetic analysis revealed 2 unbalanced translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 3 and chromosomes 1 and 10, with a karyotype of 45,XX,der(1)t(1;3)(p31;q12),-3,der(10)t(1;10)(p31;q25)[11]/46,XX[4], thus suggesting that this disease is neoplastic. The controversies in classification of these lesions are also discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare soft tissue tumor of low malignant potential, which most often arises in the lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no prior descriptions of the imaging features of this neoplasm. In this case series, we report the imaging findings in three patients. Two patients had a lower extremity subcutaneous PHAT, while the third patient had an intramuscular upper extremity PHAT. While imaging features are variable, a diagnosis of PHAT should be considered when encountering an enhancing, subcutaneous tumor with ill-defined margins, particularly in the extremity.
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    ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare soft tissue tumor of intermediate malignancy and uncertain cellular origin and lineage of differentiation. Although PHAT is still poorly characterized at the genetic level, there is a potential genetic overlap with two other soft tissue tumors: myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT); MIFS and HFLT share a characteristic t(1;10)(p22;q24) with breakpoints in the TGFBR3 locus on chromosome 1 and near the MGEA5 locus on chromosome 10. Recently, a PHAT with a similar t(1;10) was reported, suggesting a genetic link between MIFS/HFLT and PHAT. To ascertain whether PHAT is also associated with this translocation, two cases were subjected to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Neither PHAT showed a t(1;10) or other types of rearrangement of the TGFBR3 or MGEA5 loci. Both tumors showed imbalances in the SNP array analysis, but none was shared. Thus, the results indicate that PHAT is genetically distinguishable from MIFS and HFLT, but further studies are needed to identify the salient genetic pathways involved in PHAT development.
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    ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare, locally aggressive tumor of the distal extremities with a proclivity for local recurrence. PHATs contain characteristic ectatic, thin-walled vessels, lined by fibrin, and are surrounded by groups of variably pleomorphic spindled to epithelioid neoplastic cells. The putative precursor lesion of PHAT, originally termed "early PHAT" shares many clinicopathologic features with hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT). HFLT, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS), and tumors showing hybrid features of HFLT and MIFS often show TGFBR3 and MGEA5 gene rearrangements. To date, only a small number of PHATs has been tested for either rearrangement; all have been negative. We hypothesized that PHATs contain TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements. Cases of PHAT (all containing areas of HFLT) (N=10), HFLT (N=7), MIFS (N=6), hybrid HFLT/MIFS (N=3), and PHAT-like undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (N=7) were retrieved from our institutional and consultation archives and analyzed for TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements using a break-apart probe strategy for FISH. Six of 10 PHATs harbored TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 gene rearrangements: 4 cases had both TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements, and 2 cases contained MGEA5 rearrangements. Two of 7 HFLTs were positive: 1 case had a TGFBR3 rearrangement, and 1 case had an MGEA5 rearrangement. One of 6 MIFSs had an MGEA5 rearrangement. All 3 hybrid HFLT/MIFS cases were positive: 2 cases had both TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements, and 1 case had a TGFBR3 rearrangement. All PHAT-like undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas were negative. We report, for the first time, the presence of TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements in tumors showing mixed features of HFLT and PHAT. The presence of such rearrangements strongly suggests that HFLT is related to both PHAT and MIFS and that the latter 2 tumors may represent morphologic variants of a single, genetically defined entity in which only MIFS has acquired the capacity to metastasize.
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