Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder, and what, if any, are spectrum conditions? A family study perspective
ABSTRACT Experts have proposed removing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the anxiety disorders section and grouping it with putatively related conditions in DSM-5. The current study uses co-morbidity and familiality data to inform these issues.
Case family data from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (382 OCD-affected probands and 974 of their first-degree relatives) were compared with control family data from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study (73 non-OCD-affected probands and 233 of their first-degree relatives).
Anxiety disorders (especially agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder), cluster C personality disorders (especially obsessive-compulsive and avoidant), tic disorders, somatoform disorders (hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder), grooming disorders (especially trichotillomania and pathological skin picking) and mood disorders (especially unipolar depressive disorders) were more common in case than control probands; however, the prevalences of eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), other impulse-control disorders (pathological gambling, pyromania, kleptomania) and substance dependence (alcohol or drug) did not differ between the groups. The same general pattern was evident in relatives of case versus control probands. Results in relatives did not differ markedly when adjusted for demographic variables and proband diagnosis of the same disorder, though the strength of associations was lower when adjusted for OCD in relatives. Nevertheless, several anxiety, depressive and putative OCD-related conditions remained significantly more common in case than control relatives when adjusting for all of these variables simultaneously.
On the basis of co-morbidity and familiality, OCD appears related both to anxiety disorders and to some conditions currently classified in other sections of DSM-IV.
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ABSTRACT: Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is a psychiatric condition characterized by a persistent habit of pulling out one's hair. In treatment-seeking populations, hair-pulling disorder can be severe, chronic, and difficult to treat. In the early 1970s, behavioral interventions (eg, habit reversal training) were developed and proved effective in treating chronic hair-pulling for many individuals. In order to further increase treatment efficacy and improve long-term outcome, several authors have developed augmented treatment protocols that combine traditional behavioral strategies with other cognitive-behavioral interventions, including cognitive therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. In the present review, we give an overview of the clinical and diagnostic features of hair-pulling disorder, describe different cognitive-behavioral interventions, and evaluate research on their efficacy.Psychology Research and Behavior Management 01/2015; 8:105. DOI:10.2147/PRBM.S53977
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ABSTRACT: Background. Twin studies of internalizing disorders suggest that their high co-morbidity is partially explained by shared genetic risk. Few studies have investigated pleiotropic effects of well-validated candidate genes across phenotypes. Method. Subjects were 928 Caucasian patients who presented to an out-patient clinic specializing in the assessment and treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. We constructed latent dimensional phenotypes across the internalizing spectrum (neuroticism, extraversion, depression, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress, and obsessions-compulsions) by combining diagnostic criteria with other clinical indicators. We selected multiple variants in four evidence-based candidate genes (SLC6A4, COMT, GAD1, RGS2) with previously reported effects on several of these phenotypes. We conducted genetic association testing of their direct and indirect effects as well as gene × stress interactions (G × E). Results. We detected 19 nominally significant main effect associations for the 10 polymorphisms tested among the eight phenotypes (24%). These were generally phenotype non-specific, showing pleiotropic effects across multiple domains. The majority of observed sharing was between depression, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Some of these were best explained by mediational models in which genes increase liability for disorders indirectly via their effects on temperament. Limited G × E effects were detected between variants in SLC6A4 and both panic/agoraphobia and post-traumatic stress. Conclusions. Examining just a few candidate genes for their potential roles in internalizing phenotypes, we found moderate support for the shared effects of several polymorphisms. These findings highlight the richness and complexity by which genes potentially contribute to psychopathology via pleiotropy, moderation by stress, and mediation by temperament.Psychological Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715000021 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and hypochondriasis in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and to investigate the different comorbidity rates of OCD and hypochondriasis between clozapine-treated patients and patients treated with other AAPs. We therefore recruited 60 schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine or other AAPs. We assessed the prevalence rates of OCD or OC symptoms and hypochondriasis or hypochondriac symptoms in the whole group of patients and in clozapine-treated patients versus patients treated with other AAPs. Schizophrenic patients had a higher comorbidity rate of OCD (26.6% vs 1-3%) and hypochondriasis (20% vs 1%) than the general population. These comorbidities were more frequent in schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine versus patients treated with other AAPs (36.7% vs 16.7% and 33.3% vs 6.7%). Clozapine-treated patients showed a higher mean Y-BOCS and HY-BOCS score when compared to patients treated with other AAPs (10.90 vs 5.90, p = .099; 15.40 vs 8.93, p = .166). A statistical significant correlation was found between the Y-BOCS and HY-BOCS scores of the whole group (r = .378, p = 0.03). Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between the global level of functioning and the diagnosis of hypochondriasis (p = .048) and the severity of hypochondriac symptoms (p = .047). Hypochondriasis could represent an important clinical feature of schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, and further research is needed in this field.CNS spectrums 11/2013; DOI:10.1017/S1092852913000795 · 1.30 Impact Factor