Evolution of Inequalities in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Barcelona: Population Surveys 1992, 2001, and 2006

Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Oficina Tècnica Programa de Detecció Precodel Càncer de Mama, Pça. Lesseps, Barcelona, Spain.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 2.05). 07/2011; 20(11):1721-7. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2478
Source: PubMed


To describe and compare breast and cervical cancer screening among women in Barcelona in 1992, 2001, and 2006 by social class, age, and screening approach.
This was a study of trends based on analysis of Barcelona health interview surveys for the years 1992 (n=5,003), 2001 (n=10,030), and 2006 (n=6,050). Dependent variables were having regular mammographies (at least every 2 years) and having regular cytologic testing (at least every 3 years). Independent variables were age, social class, and survey year. A descriptive analysis was carried out. To compare prevalence in terms of social class and the years studied, we calculated prevalence differences (PD) and prevalence ratios (PR) by fitting robust Poisson regression models.
In 1992, women aged 40?49 had more regular mammographies than those aged 50?69, with social class inequalities in both age groups. Having cervical cancer screening was more common than having breast cancer screening, with prevalence varying from 46.4% in the low social classes to 59.2% in the high classes. In 2001, breast cancer screening had risen, particularly in women aged 50?69, a tendency that had stabilized by 2006. Inequalities diminished over the period, more markedly in women aged 50?69; PRs of 1.22 and 1.58, respectively, for high and middle social classes with respect to the lowest class in 1992 fell to PRs of 1.07 and 1.08, respectively, in 2006. In the case of cervical cancer screening, inequalities also diminished but not to the same extent.
Preventive screening for breast and cervical cancer has increased, and the population screening program for breast cancer among women aged 50?69 years appears to contribute more than opportunistic screening for cervical cancer in reducing social class inequalities.

9 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effectiveness of applying age-based strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Spain. We described and compared influenza vaccination coverage from 2003 to 2010 between those Spanish autonomous regions (AR) that lowered the age limit to 60 y and those regions that maintained the limit at 65 y. We used data collected from two surveys covering a representative sample of the Spanish population aged ≥ 16 y [Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2003/2004 and the European Health Survey for Spain (EHSS) 2009/2010]. The study population (persons aged ≥ 60 y) comprised 7,496 persons in the SNHS and 7,686 in the EHSS. In 2010, those AR which had reduced the age limit had higher coverage for all age groups analyzed-regardless of the presence of associated chronic conditions-than AR which continued vaccination for those ≥ 65 y. The greatest differences appeared in individuals aged 60 to 64 y (36.9% vs. 24.4% for individuals without chronic conditions, 59.1% vs. 52.9% for those with chronic conditions, and 43.3% vs. 32.3% for the entire age group). Multivariate analysis showed that those AR which lowered the age limit increased total coverage for all age groups, specifically among individuals with chronic conditions aged 60 to 64 y (IRR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.54) and ≥ 65 y (IRR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). No significant changes were observed over time for the AR that continued vaccinating people aged ≥ 65 y. Our results suggest that age-based strategies are effective for improving influenza vaccination coverage in Spain.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 02/2012; 8(2):228-33. DOI:10.4161/hv.18433 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes the concept of prevention and identifies the knowledge, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the practices of early detection of breast cancer among women from different cultural backgrounds and socioeconomic levels. A socioconstructivist qualitative study was conducted in Barcelona. The study population consisted of women who were either native (Spanish) or immigrants from low income countries, aged 40 to 69 years. Narrations of the 68 informants were subjected to sociological discourse analysis. Place and culture of origin, social class and the migratory process can either facilitate or constitute barriers to breast cancer prevention.
    Health & Place 09/2012; 18(6):1270-1281. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.09.008 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify changes in social inequalities for mammograms uptake in Belgium over the period 1997-2008 using multiple indices, and to assess the contribution of the national breast cancer screening programme in these changes. Data were obtained from four waves of the Belgian Health Interview Survey. The socio-economic position was defined by the educational level. Inequalities were measured both with pairwise measures comparing extreme educational groups (prevalence difference and prevalence ratio), and with indices measuring the total inequality impact at population level: the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF), the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). All indices show a substantial decrease in inequalities in mammographic uptake between 1997 and 2008. For the indices of total impact (PAF, RII, SII), the change occurred between the first two waves (1997 and 2001) and stabilized afterwards, while for pairwise indices the evolution continued over the whole period. Using multiple indices of inequality is necessary for a more complete understanding of the changes: total impact inequality indices should always complement simple pairwise measures. The inequalities in mammograms uptake, as measured with total impact indices, only decreased before the start of the national screening programme.
    The European Journal of Public Health 08/2013; 24(2). DOI:10.1093/eurpub/ckt116 · 2.59 Impact Factor
Show more