The Effects of Suffering in Chronically Ill Older Adults on the Health and Well-Being of Family Members Involved in Their Care: The Role of Emotion-Related Processes.
ABSTRACT A large literature shows that caregivers of chronically ill older adults have a higher risk for impaired health and decreased longevity. In this paper we review research that addresses pathways through which family members experience negative health consequences from exposure to a partner's suffering. We first provide a conceptualization of suffering and describe how it can be measured, then review empirical evidence that exposure to suffering uniquely influences caregivers' health, and discuss individual differences in caregivers' emotional reactions to partners' suffering using three emotion theories (Gross' process model of emotion regulation, attachment theory, and a functionalist perspective on emotion). Finally, we discuss implications of the effects of suffering for the health and well-being of family caregivers.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 11/1982; 52(4):664-78. · 1.29 Impact Factor
Article: The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): a simple method for the assessment of palliative care patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe a simple method for the assessment of symptoms twice a day in patients admitted to a palliative care unit. Eight visual analog scales (VAS) 0-100 mm are completed either by the patient alone, by the patient with nurse's assistance, or by the nurses or relatives at 10:00 and 18:00 hours, in order to indicate the levels of pain, activity, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, appetite, and sensation of well-being. The information is then transferred to a graph that contains the assessments of up to 21 days on each page. The sum of the scores for all symptoms is defined as the symptom distress score. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) was carried out for 101 consecutive patients for the length of their admission to our unit. Of these, 84% were able to make their own assessment sometime during their admission. However, before death 83% of assessments were completed by a nurse or relative. Mean symptom distress score was 410 +/- 95 during day 1 of the admission, versus 362 +/- 83 during day 5 (p less than 0.01). Mean symptom distress scores throughout the hospitalization were 359 +/- 105, 374 +/- 93, 359 +/- 91 and 406 +/- 81 when the ESAS was completed by the patient alone, patient with nurse's assistance (p = N.S.), nurse alone (p = N.S.), or relative (p less than 0.01) respectively. We conclude that this is a simple and useful method for the regular assessment of symptom distress in the palliative care setting.Journal of palliative care 02/1991; 7(2):6-9. · 0.93 Impact Factor