Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: An International Multi-Institutional Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Lymph Node Assessment
ABSTRACT To identify factors associated with outcome after surgical management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and examine the impact of lymph node (LN) assessment on survival.
From an international multi-institutional database, 449 patients who underwent surgery for ICC between 1973 and 2010 were identified. Clinical and pathologic data were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analyses.
Median tumor size was 6.5 cm. Most patients had a solitary tumor (73%) and no vascular invasion (69%). Median survival was 27 months, and 5-year survival was 31%. Factors associated with adverse prognosis included positive margin status (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; P < .001), multiple lesions (HR, 1.80; P = .001), and vascular invasion (HR, 1.59; P = .015). Tumor size was not a prognostic factor (HR, 1.03; P = .23). Patients were stratified using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer T1, T2a, and T2b categories (seventh edition) in a discrete step-wise fashion (P < .001). Lymphadenectomy was performed in 248 patients (55%); 74 of these (30%) had LN metastasis. LN metastasis was associated with worse outcome (median survival: N0, 30 months v N1, 24 months; P = .03). Although patients with no LN metastasis were able to be stratified by tumor number and vascular invasion (N0; P < .001), among patients with N1 disease, multiple tumors and vascular invasion, either alone or together, failed to discriminate patients into discrete prognostic groups (P = .34).
Although tumor size provides no prognostic information, tumor number, vascular invasion, and LN metastasis were associated with survival. N1 status adversely affected overall survival and also influenced the relative effect of tumor number and vascular invasion on prognosis. Lymphadenectomy should be strongly considered for ICC, because up to 30% of patients will have LN metastasis.
Article: Cancer review: Cholangiocarcinoma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common biliary tract malignancy. CCA is classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal extrahepatic; the individual subtypes differ in their biologic behavior, clinical presentation, and management. Throughout the last decades, CCA incidence rates had significantly increased. In addition to known established risk factors, novel possible risk factors (i.e. obesity, hepatitis C virus) have been identified that are of high importance in developed countries where CCA prevalence rates have been low. CCA tends to develop on the background of inflammation and cholestasis. In recent years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis has increased, thereby, providing the basis for molecularly targeted therapies. In its diagnostic evaluation, imaging techniques have improved, and the role of complementary techniques has been defined. There is a need for improved CCA biomarkers as currently used ones are suboptimal. Multiple staging systems have been developed, but none of these is optimal. The prognosis of CCA is considered dismal. However, treatment options have improved throughout the last two decades for carefully selected subgroups of CCA patients. Perihilar CCA can now be treated with orthotopic liver transplantation with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieving 5-year survival rates of 68%. Classically considered chemotherapy-resistant, the ABC-02 trial has shown the therapeutic benefit of combination therapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. The benefits of adjuvant treatments for resectable CCA, local ablative therapies and molecularly targeted therapies still need to be defined. In this article, we will provide the reader with an overview over CCA, and discuss the latest developments and controversies.Journal of Carcinogenesis 02/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.151940
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ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive disease with limited effective treatment options. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway represents an attractive therapeutic target due to its frequent dysregulation in CCA. MK2206, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, has been shown to reduce cellular proliferation in other cancers. We hypothesized that MK2206 mediated inhibition of Akt would impact CCA cellular viability. Post treatment with MK2206 (0-2 μM), cellular viability was assessed in two human CCA cell lines-CCLP-1 and SG231-using an MTT assay. Lysates from the MK2206 treated CCA cells were then examined for apoptotic marker expression levels using Western blot analysis. Additionally, the effect on cellular proliferation of MK2206 treatment on survivin depleted cells was determined. CCLP-1 and SG231 viability was significantly reduced at MK2206 concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 μM by approximately 44%, 53%, and 64% (CCLP-1; p = 0.01) and 32%, 32%, and 42% (SG231; p < 0.00005) respectively. Western analysis revealed a decrease in AKT(Ser473), while AKT(Thr308) expression was unchanged. In addition, cleaved PARP as well as survivin expression increased while pro-caspase 3 and 9 levels decreased with treatment. Depletion of survivin in CCLP-1 cells resulted in apoptosis as evidenced by increased cleaved PARP. In addition, survivin siRNA further enhanced the antitumor activity of MK2206. This study demonstrates that by blocking phosphorylation of Akt at serine473, CCA cellular growth is reduced. The growth suppression appears to be mediated via apoptosis. Importantly, combination of survivin siRNA transfection and MK2206 treatment significantly decreased cell viability.Cancer Cell International 12/2015; 15(1):13. DOI:10.1186/s12935-015-0161-9 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several unfavorable prognostic factors have been proposed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) in patients undergoing hepatectomy, including gross type of tumor, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, a high carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and a positive resection margin. However, the clinical effect of a positive surgical margin on the survival of patients with PCC after hepatectomy still needs to be clarified due to conflicting results. A total of 224 PCC patients who underwent hepatic resection with curative intent between 1977 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients had a positive resection margin, with 62 having a microscopically positive margin and 27 a grossly positive margin (R2). The clinicopathological features, outcomes, and recurrence pattern were compared with patients with curative hepatectomy. PCC patients with hepatolithiasis, periductal infiltrative or periductal infiltrative mixed with mass-forming growth, higher T stage, and more advanced stage tended to have higher positive resection margin rates after hepatectomy. PCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy had a significantly higher survival rate than did those with a positive surgical margin. When PCC patients underwent hepatectomy with a positive resection margin, the histological grade of the tumor, nodal positivity, and chemotherapy significantly affected overall survival. Locoregional recurrence was the most common pattern of recurrence. A positive resection margin had an unfavorable effect on overall survival in PCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. In these patients, the prognosis was determined by the biology of the tumor, including differentiation and nodal positivity, and chemotherapy increased overall survival.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2015; 9:163-74. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S74940 · 3.03 Impact Factor