STAT3 protein promotes T-cell survival and inhibits interleukin-2 production through up-regulation of Class O Forkhead transcription factors.
ABSTRACT Much is known about the role of STAT3 in regulating differentiation of interleukin-17-producing Th17 cells, but its function in other lymphocyte subsets is not well understood. In this report, we reveal wide-ranging functions of STAT3 in T-cells and provide evidence that STAT3 is convergence point for mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte quiescence and those controlling T-cell activation and survival. We show here that STAT3 inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation by up-regulating the expression of Class-O Forkhead transcription factors, which play essential roles in maintaining T-cells in quiescent state. We further show that STAT3 binds directly to FoxO1 or FoxO3a promoter and that STAT3-deficiency resulted in down-regulation of the expression of FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO-target genes (IκB and p27Kip1). Compared with wild-type T-cells, STAT3-deficient T-cells produced more IL-2, due in part, to marked decrease in IκB-mediated sequestration of NF-κB in the cytoplasm and resultant enhancement of NF-κB activation. However, the high level of IL-2 production by STAT3-deficient T-cells was partially restored to normal levels by overexpressing FoxO1. It is notable that their exaggerated increase in IL-2 production rendered STAT3-deficient lymphocytes more susceptible to activation-induced cell death, suggesting that STAT3 might protect T-cells from apoptosis by limiting their production of IL-2 through up-regulation of FoxO1/FoxO3a expression. Moreover, we found that STAT3 enhanced survival of activated T-cells by up-regulating OX-40 and Bcl-2 while down-regulating FasL and Bad expression, suggesting that similar to role of FoxOs in regulating the lifespan of worms, STAT3 and FoxO pathways converge to regulate lifespan of T-lymphocytes.
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ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been shown to mediate biological actions in response to cytokines. Stat3, a member of the STAT family, is activated by a variety of cytokines, including the interleukin 6 family of cytokines, leptin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and epidermal growth factor. To address the biological function of Stat3, we generated mice deficient in Stat3 by gene targeting. No viable Stat3-deficient mice could be obtained from heterozygote intercross. Analysis of embryos at several gestation times revealed that Stat3-deficient embryos showed a rapid degeneration between embryonic days 6.5 and 7.5, although they developed into the egg cylinder stage until embryonic day 6.0. These results demonstrate that Stat3 is essential for the early development of mouse embryos.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1997; 94(8):3801-4. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is important to understand which molecules are essential for long-lived immunity. We show that OX40 (CD134) is required with CD28 for the survival of CD4 T cells following antigen-driven expansion. In contrast to CD28-/- T cells, which show defects early, OX40-/- T cells are relatively unimpaired in IL-2 production, cell division, and expansion. However, OX40-/- T cells fail to maintain high levels of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 4-8 days after activation, and undergo apoptosis. Conversely, OX40 stimulation promotes Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 and suppresses apoptosis. Moreover, retroviral transduction of OX40-/- T cells with Bcl-xL or Bcl-2 reverses their survival defect. Thus, a temporal relationship exists between CD28 and OX40, with OX40 being a critical regulator of antigen-driven T cell survival.Immunity 10/2001; 15(3):445-55. · 19.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not.PLoS Biology 06/2009; 7(5):e1000112. · 12.69 Impact Factor