Food sources of nutrients among 13-year-old Portuguese adolescents.
ABSTRACT To identify food sources of nutrients in adolescents' diets and to identify differences in food sources according to individual characteristics.
A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003/2004 school year. Self-administered questionnaires were used and a physical examination was performed. Diet was evaluated using an FFQ.
Public and private schools in Porto, Portugal.
Adolescents aged 13 years (n 1522) enrolled at school.
The main sources of energy were starchy foods (26·5 %), dairy (12·5 %) and meat (12·0 %). The major contributors to carbohydrate intake were starchy foods (38·2 %) and fruit (13·8 %) and to protein intake were meat (28·0 %), dairy products (20·3 %), starchy foods (15·3 %) and seafood (13·6 %). The main sources of total fat were meat (22·0 %), starchy foods (13·4 %) and dairy products (12·7 %). Sweets and pastries presented important contributions to energy (11·1 %), carbohydrate (12·4 %), total fat (13·3 %) and saturated fat (16·6 %) intakes. Parental education was inversely associated with the contribution of sweets and pastries to energy, carbohydrate and fat intakes and it was positively associated with the seafood contribution to protein intake.
The major sources of carbohydrates were starchy foods, which also accounted for a quarter of energy intake. Dairy products plus meat accounted for another quarter of energy. Meat was a major source of protein and fats. Sweets and pastries contributed more than 10 % to energy, carbohydrates, total and saturated fat. Parental education was the strongest determinant of food sources and was positively associated with a healthier contribution of food groups.