Inbreeding and population subdivision in Córdoba province, Argentina, at the end of the eighteenth century.
ABSTRACT Marital isonymy is frequently used to estimate inbreeding and the repeated pairs method is useful to investigate whether the population under examination has subdivisions. These methods can also be applied to registers, such as population censuses, where both spouses' surnames are noted. In this paper, the 1795 census for Córdoba province is analysed. Numerically speaking, Spanish and mixed-race people are the major ethno-social groups in the register. In order to estimate inbreeding, the isonymic method was applied to both groups, at provincial and at parish level. To appreciate to what extent the parishes were genetically isolated, Wright's Fst was also calculated. The repeated pairs method was also used for both groups to assess if population subdivision existed in the units under study. Finally, to evaluate whether the subdivision based on surnames reflected the ethno-social stratification, the same method was used considering the two groups together. At the provincial scale, both groups displayed low inbreeding and micro-differentiation, although the former was higher for the Spanish and the latter for mixed-race groups, which could indicate a more marked conjugal selectivity in the Spanish. At the parish scale, preferences for isonymic spouses were not pronounced either in Spanish or in mixed-race groups; in the Spanish group population subdivision prevailed, with the opposite occurring in the mixed-race group. The estimations from repeated pairs, taking the two groups together, indicated that for the studied populations the surnames do not allow the two groups to be differentiated into isolated reproductive units.
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ABSTRACT: Since 1985, when a bibliography concerning studies on surnames and genetic structure appeared, the number of publications on this subject has increased a thousandfold. New topics and uses have been added, but large gaps in knowledge remain. Only studies on isonymy in cities of nation states for recent times are well covered, and most studies are on populations that were selected because they are isolated and not because they are typical. This review, although not exhaustive, covers the literature published since 1985.Human Biology 01/2004; 75(6):785-807. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surnames provide a useful method to study the structure of human populations for which biological data are not available. The isonymic method has had multiple applications, but difficulties emerge when dealing with groups where extramarital reproduction is common and the sample size is small, and even more so when only paternal surnames are taken into account.Therefore, it could be of interest to retain female surnames, including those of unmarried mothers. This study was carried out using all birth records froman Argentinian population in the colonial period, which was characterized by the presence of different ethno-social groups (Spanish, Indian and 'Mestizo'or mixed Spanish-Indian) and various reproductive patterns regarding legitimacy. Coefficient of relationship by isonymy (Ri) kinship matrices between geographical populations were obtained, and the results derived from sets of surnames (paternal, maternal of legitimate and illegitimate children,and all surnames in the registers) compared. The results show similar surname distribution regardless of the set of surnames and group considered. Kinship Ri matrices using paternal surnames, maternal surnames of legitimate children, maternal surnames of illegitimate children, and the set of whole surnames showed the same relationships among populations, indicating a similar pattern for Spanish, Indian and Mixed ethno-social groups. Mantel test correlation between all pairs of matrices was significant in all different ethno-social groups. The results suggest that in populations with high illegitimacy, such as that studied here, it is possible to include maternal surnames, even corresponding to single mothers, in order to consider total reproduction and therefore maximize sample size.Journal of Biosocial Science 06/2006; 38(3):381-9. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The application of the isonymic method to establish interpopulation relationships is made difficult by such factors as: (1) a small population size; (2) the subdivision of the population into ethnosocial groups; and (3) the existence of individuals born extramaritally. The present study analyzes the validity of the isonymy method in populations where such difficulties exist. Lasker's R(ij) relationship coefficients were calculated in base to marital records from six Pocho parishes (Argentina) for the period 1766 to 1840. Three endogamous ethnosocial groups were considered-Spanish, American Indians, "Mestizos"--and a fourth group combining mates of the three previous groups. For each ethnosocial category, and taking into account paternal surnames, maternal surnames (both for legitimate and illegitimate mates), and whole surnames merged, R(i) interparish relationship matrices were obtained. All these matrices were correlated by means of the Mantel test. Maternal surnames of illegitimate mates show a similar pattern to the maternal surnames of legitimate mates and to all surnames of each category. Groups with larger sample size in every parish intercorrelate regardless of ethnosocial category. Results suggest the convenience of maximizing the sample size and using maternal surnames in populations with high illegitimacy.Human Biology 01/2003; 74(6):871-8. · 1.52 Impact Factor