On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: a meta-analysis of three decades of research.
ABSTRACT This article provides a quantitative review of the link of emotional labor (emotion-rule dissonance, surface acting, and deep acting) with well-being and performance outcomes. The meta-analysis is based on 494 individual correlations drawn from a final sample of 95 independent studies. Results revealed substantial relationships of emotion-rule dissonance and surface acting with indicators of impaired well-being (ρs between .39 and .48) and job attitudes (ρs between -.24 and -.40) and a small negative relationship with performance outcomes (ρs between -.20 and -.05). Overall, deep acting displayed weak relationships with indicators of impaired well-being and job attitudes but positive relationships with emotional performance and customer satisfaction (ρs .18 and .37). A meta-analytic regression analysis provides information on the unique contribution of emotion-rule dissonance, surface acting, and deep acting in statistically predicting well-being and performance outcomes. Furthermore, a mediation analysis confirms theoretical models of emotional labor which suggest that surface acting partially mediates the relationship of emotion-rule dissonance with well-being. Implications for future research as well as pragmatic ramifications for organizational practices are discussed in conclusion.
- SourceAvailable from: Allison Gabriel
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- "According to most descriptions of emotional labor , the purpose of emotion regulation is to produce effective emotional displays . Consistent with meta - analytic work ( Hülsheger & Schewe , 2011 ) and the idea that deep acting aligns felt emotions with expectations to produce appropriate displays ( Grandey , 2000 ; Hochschild , 1983 ) , we theorized that deep acting would positively relate to vocal tone . For surface acting , the relation with vocal tone is less clear . "
ABSTRACT: Emotional labor has been described as a dynamic self-regulatory process that unfolds over the course of customer interactions, with employees continuously monitoring and adjusting their felt and expressed emotions via two emotion regulation strategies: surface acting and deep acting. Despite dynamic theory on the topic, empirical tests have largely ignored within-episode variability in emotional labor, relying on more general assessments of emotional labor at the person-, day-, or interaction-level. The current study elaborated on theory pertaining to within-episode emotional labor dynamics and utilized a call center simulation to examine how shifts in customer incivility impacted continuous measures captured every 200 milliseconds of participants’ felt emotions, surface acting, deep acting, and vocal tone during a single interaction. Results provided evidence that customer behavior causally influences within-episode changes in emotions, emotion regulation, and vocal tone and that these key emotional labor variables significantly relate to each other at the momentary level of analysis. Further, by modeling lagged effects, we were able to gain insight into the causal direction of effects among these continuously measured variables. Moreover, we showed for the first time that surface acting and deep acting can be simultaneously used to manage emotional labor demands in a dynamic interaction with a customer.The Academy of Management Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.5465/amj.2013.1135 · 5.61 Impact Factor
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- "One analysis found that deep acting was positively related to work, task, and emotion performance (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Another meta-analysis concluded that deep acting was positively related to customer satisfaction but not to task or emotional performance (Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011). Once again, we suggest that a meso-level approach may be more appropriate for detecting the relationship between deep acting and performance. "
ABSTRACT: This study proposes and tests a meso-level model of deep acting in work teams that draws on emotional contagion theory to explain how shared means of complying with display rules can arise in work teams. We argue that the presence of inﬂuential deep actors can lead to greater convergence (lower dispersion) on individual deep acting in the team. That is, team members behave more similarly. When a team has greater convergence, deepactingbyindividualmembersshouldberelatedtoloweremotionalexhaustionandhigherjobsatisfaction and in-role performance. In a sample of mature work teams, these hypotheses received general support. Our ﬁndings suggested that team-level deep acting effects can foster beneﬁts for team members (lower emotional exhaustion and higher satisfaction) and organizations (higher job performance).Journal of Organizational Behavior 01/2015; 36:232-249. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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- "Further, employees' felt emotions and displayed affect are anteceded by employee traits and predispositions, including negative affectivity (Tan, Foo, & Kwek, 2004), extraversion, neuroticism (Tan, Foo, Chong, & Ng, 2003), emotional expressiveness (Pugh, 2001), and emotional competence (Giardini & Frese, 2008); and situational factors, such as transaction busyness (Pugh, 2001), display rules (Gosserand & Diefendoff, 2005), and climate for service friendliness (Tsai, 2001). On the output side, deep acting has been found to be significantly associated with customer satisfaction and related outcomes (Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011; Groth, Hennig-Thurau, & Walsh, 2009), while surface acting tends to have a small negative effect on customer satisfaction (Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011) and predicts employees' emotional exhaustion (Grandey, 2003). These studies also suggest that the effects of emotional labor on both customers and employees can be driven by customers' reactions. "
ABSTRACT: Several streams of management research have focused on the relationship between organizations, employees, and customers within the context of services. However, this body of work lacks integration and requires an internally consistent framework encompassing critical constructs, causal mechanisms, and levels of analyses. To address these gaps, we reviewed empirical studies with service-related outcomes published in management and organizational behavior journals as well as critical summative and theoretical works within the fields of management and marketing, and constructed an integrative framework for services management theory and research. This framework incorporates constructs and relationships within (individual and unit levels) and across (multilevel and microfoundations) levels of analyses and highlights areas that are ripe for future theoretical development and empirical inquiry.Journal of Management 01/2015; 41(1). DOI:10.1177/0149206314557158 · 6.86 Impact Factor