Sustaining and Spreading the Reduction of Adverse Drug Events in a Multicenter Collaborative
ABSTRACT Adverse drug events (ADEs) occur more frequently in pediatric patients than adults. ADEs frequently cause serious harm to children and increase the cost of care. The purpose of this study was to decrease ADEs by targeting the entire medication-delivery system for all high-risk medications.
Thirteen freestanding children's hospitals participated in this ADE collaborative. An advisory panel developed a change package of interventions that consisted of standardization of medication-ordering (eg, consensus-based protocols and order sets and high-alert medication protocols), reliable medication-dispensing processes (eg, automated dispensing cabinets and redesign of floor stock procedures), reliable medication-administration processes (eg, safe pump use and reducing interruptions), improvement of patient safety culture (eg, safety-culture changes and reduction of staff intimidation), and clinical decision support (eg, increase ADE detection and redesign care systems). ADE rates were compared from the 3-month baseline period to quarters of the 12-month intervention phase. ADE rates were categorized further as opioid related and other medication related.
From baseline to the final quarter, the collaborative resulted in a 42% decrease in total ADEs, a 51% decrease in opioid-related ADEs, and a 41% decrease in other medication ADEs.
A pediatric collaborative that targeted the medication-delivery system decreased the rate of ADEs at participating institutions.
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ABSTRACT: Patient handoffs in health care require transfer of information, responsibility, and authority between providers. Suboptimal patient handoffs pose a serious safety risk. Studies demonstrating the impact of improved patient handoffs on care failures are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multihospital collaborative designed to decrease handoff-related care failures.METHODS: Twenty-three children's hospitals participated in a quality improvement collaborative aimed at reducing handoff-related care failures. The improvement was guided by evidence-based recommendations regarding handoff intent and content, standardized handoff tools/methods, and clear transition of responsibility. Hospitals tailored handoff elements to locally important handoff types. Handoff-related care failures were compared between baseline and 3 intervention periods. Secondary outcomes measured compliance to specific change package elements and balancing measure of staff satisfaction.RESULTS: Twenty-three children's hospitals evaluated 7864 handoffs over the 12-month study period. Handoff-related care failures decreased from baseline (25.8%) to the final intervention period (7.9%) (P < .05). Significant improvement was observed in every handoff type studied. Compliance to change package elements improved (achieving a common understanding about the patient from 86% to 96% [P < .05]; clear transition of responsibility from 92% to 96% [P < .05]; and minimized interruptions and distractions from 84% to 90% [P < .05]) as did overall satisfaction with the handoff (from 55% to 70% [P < .05]).CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a standardized evidence-based handoff process across 23 children's hospitals resulted in a significant decrease in handoff-related care failures, observed over all handoff types. Compliance to critical components of the handoff process improved, as did provider satisfaction.Pediatrics 07/2014; 134(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-1844 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimTo compare adverse medication events (AMEs) reported in children, via the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding with events reported via other data sources.MethodAME reports were retrieved using codes Y40–Y59 and X40–X44 over 6 months. Patients’ charts were manually reviewed to identify events associated with error and/or harm with medicines during a hospital admission. Medication name, group, error, harm and alert documentation were recorded. Clinical incidents and pharmacist interventions were reviewed for the same period.ResultsTwo hundred sixty-three events from January to June 2011 were recorded by ICD-10 coding in 180 patients. After duplicated, missing or unrelated events were excluded and 146 AMEs remained. In the same period, 117 AMEs were reported as incidents and 190 as pharmacist interventions. In total, 276 children with 447 events were reported via all sources. Little duplication between data sources was evident. In total, 158 events involved harm, with 135 of these from ICD-10 coding, 16 from incident reports and 2 pharmacist interventions (including 6 events from multiple sources). Error was involved in 3% of ICD10 reports, 97% of incidents and 100% of interventions. Only 14% of harm-related events from ICD-10 were documented on the medical record clinical alert. Chemotherapy accounted for 31% of harm-related events, antimicrobials 18%, corticosteroids 14% and narcotics 12%.Conclusion Of the harm-related events, 85% were documented via ICD-10 coding with few documented in other databases. Review of ICD-10-coded AMEs can provide valuable information to improve patient safety and quality.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 08/2014; 50(12). DOI:10.1111/jpc.12684 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The available knowledge about high-alert medications for children is limited. Because children are particularly vulnerable to medication errors, a list of high-alert medication specifically for children would help to develop effective strategies to prevent patient harm. Therefore, we conducted an international modified Delphi study and validated the results with reports on medication incidents in children based on national data. Objective: The objective of this study was to generate an internationally accepted list of high-alert medications for a pediatric inpatient population from birth to 18-years old. Results: The rating panel consisted of 34 experts from 13 countries. In total, 14 medications and 4 medication classes were included with the predefined level of consensus of 75%. The high-alert medications were: amiodarone, digoxin, dopamine, epinephrine, fentanyl, gentamycin, heparine, insulin, morphine, norepinephrine, phenytoin, potassium, propofol and tacrolimus. The high-alert medication classes included in the final list were: chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressive medications, lipid/total parenteral nutrition and opioids. Conclusion: An international group of experts defined 14 medications and 4 medication classes as high-alert for children. This list might be helpful as a starting point for individual hospitals to develop their own high-alert list tailored to their unique situation.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 08/2013; DOI:10.1517/14740338.2013.825247 · 2.74 Impact Factor