Determination of uremic solutes in biological fluids of chronic kidney disease patients by HPLC assay
ABSTRACT During chronic kidney disease (CKD), solutes called uremic solutes, accumulate in blood and tissues of patients. We developed an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of several uremic solutes of clinical interest in biological fluids: phenol (Pol), indole-3-acetic acid (3-IAA), p-cresol (p-C), indoxyl sulfate (3-INDS) and p-cresol sulfate (p-CS). These solutes were separated by ion-pairing HPLC using an isocratic flow and quantified with a fluorescence detection. The mean serum concentrations of 3-IAA, 3-INDS and p-CS were 2.12, 1.03 and 13.03 μM respectively in healthy subjects, 3.21, 17.45 and 73.47 μM in non hemodialyzed stage 3-5 CKD patients and 5.9, 81.04 and 120.54 μM in hemodialyzed patients (stage 5D). We found no Pol and no p-C in any population. The limits of quantification for 3-IAA, 3-INDS, and p-CS were 0.83, 0.72, and 3.2 μM respectively. The within-day CVs were between 1.23 and 3.12% for 3-IAA, 0.98 and 2% for 3-INDS, and 1.25 and 3.01% for p-CS. The between-day CVs were between 1.78 and 5.48% for 3-IAA, 1.45 and 4.54% for 3-INDS, and 1.19 and 6.36% for p-CS. This HPLC method permits the simultaneous and quick quantification of several uremic solutes for daily analysis of large numbers of samples.
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ABSTRACT: In CKD, uremic solutes may induce endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether the uremic solute indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) predicts clinical outcomes in patients with CKD and has prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. We studied 120 patients with CKD. During the median study period of 966 days, 29 patients died and 35 experienced a major cardiovascular event. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that mortality and cardiovascular events were significantly higher in the higher IAA group (IAA.3.73 mM) than in the lower IAA group (IAA,3.73 mM). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that serum IAA was a significant predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events after adjustments for age and sex; cholesterol, systolic BP, and smoking; C-reactive protein, phosphate, body mass index, and albumin; diastolic BP and history of cardiovascular disease; and uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. Notably, IAA level remained predictive of mortality when adjusted for CKD stage. IAA levels were positively correlated with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde, respectively. In cultured human endothelial cells, IAA activated an inflammatory nongenomic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/p38MAPK/NF-kB pathway that induced the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. Addi-tionally, IAA increased production of endothelial reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, serum IAA may be an independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD. In vitro, IAA induces endo-thelial inflammation and oxidative stress and activates an inflammatory AhR/p38MAPK/NF-kB pathway. J Am Soc Nephrol 26: ccc–ccc, 2014. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2013121283Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2014; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2013121283 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune system dysfunctions including the increased Th1/Th2 ratio are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and a wide variety of skin diseases including Th1-mediated uremic pruritis are associated with CKD. Although there are more than 90 uremic toxins reported, it is yet to be known which uremic solute is associated with the unbalanced Th1/Th2 ratio and how it works. Indoxyl 3-sulfate (I3S), one of uremic toxins and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, accumulates in blood and tissues, increasing up to 81.04μM in CKD patients, compared with 1.03μM in healthy subjects. I3S activates NF-κB and AhR. Thus, we investigated roles of I3S in the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells. I3S inhibited Th2 differentiation but showed little or no effect on Th1 differentiation. I3S suppressed Th2-mediated ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice and decreased the frequency of IL-4 producing CD4T cells in the lungs. I3S inhibited phosphorylation of STAT5 and STAT6, transcription factors associated with Th2 differentiation. Effects of I3S on Th2 differentiation were suppressed by α-naphtoflavone, an AhR antagonist, indicating that I3S regulates Th2 differentiation AhR-dependently.Toxicology Letters 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.11.027 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis (HD) and hemodiafiltration clear only with a low efficiency the plasma from interleukin-6 and p-cresol, two protein-bound uremic toxins associated with high cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease. HFR Supra is a double-chamber hemodiafiltration system in which the ultrafiltrate returns to the patient after its regeneration through a resin cartridge that binds hydrophobic and protein-bound solutes. In the present study, we evaluated whether the HFR cartridge can also bind total p-cresol and IL-6 and remove them from the ultrafiltrate. We compared the levels of IL-6 and p-cresol in ultrafiltrate samples collected at the inlet (UFin) and at the outlet (UFout) of the cartridge at the start or at the end of a 240 min HFR session in 12 inflamed chronic HD patients. The pro-inflammatory activity of the ultrafiltrate samples was also determined by evaluating the changes that they induced in IL-6 mRNA expression and protein release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 healthy volunteers. IL-6 and p-cresol circulating levels were also assessed in peripheral plasma blood samples collected before and after HFR and, for comparison, a control HD. p-Cresol and IL-6 were lower in UFout than in UFin both at the start and at the end of the HFR session, suggesting that they were retained by the cartridge. IL-6 mRNA expression and release were lower in PBMC incubated with UFout collected at the end than with UFin collected at the start of HFR, suggesting that passage through the cartridge reduced UF pro-inflammatory activity. Plasma total p-cresol decreased by about 53% after HFR, and 37% after HD. IL-6 circulating values were unmodified by either these dialysis procedures. This study shows that the HFR-Supra cartridge retains total p-cresol and IL-6 in the ultrafiltrate and lowers plasma total p cresol but not IL-6 levels. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01865773.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95811. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095811 · 3.53 Impact Factor