Long-term vascular access ports as a means of sedative administration in a rodent fMRI survival model
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to develop a rodent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) survival model with the use of heparin-coated vascular access devices. Such a model would ease the administration of sedative agents, reduce the number of animals required in survival experiments and eliminate animal-to-animal variability seen in previous designs. Seven male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical placement of an MRI-compatible vascular access port, followed by implantable electrode placement on the right median nerve. Functional MRI during nerve stimulation and resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) were performed at times 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively using a 9.4T scanner. Anesthesia was maintained using intravenous dexmedetomidine and reversed using atipamezole. There were no fatalities or infectious complications during this study. All vascular access ports remained patent. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation by electrical stimulation of the median nerve using implanted electrodes was seen within the forelimb sensory region (S1FL) for all animals at all time points. The number of activated voxels decreased at time points 4 and 8 weeks, returning to a normal level at 12 weeks, which is attributed to scar tissue formation and resolution around the embedded electrode. The applications of this experiment extend far beyond the scope of peripheral nerve experimentation. These vascular access ports can be applied to any survival MRI study requiring repeated medication administration, intravenous contrast, or blood sampling.
SourceAvailable from: Xiping Liu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: In this study we used a rat model to elucidate the linear make-up of each major nerve of the upper limb by the C7 root through sensory stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: The C7 nerve root and major nerves of the right forelimb were stimulated electrically. Blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was performed concurrently. Voxel overlap within the primary sensory cortex was calculated. Results: C7 comprised sensation in <1% in the musculocutaneous nerve, 6% in the ulnar nerve, 16% in the radial nerve, and 19% in the median nerve (P < 0.005 for each). The overlap was always <25% for each major nerve. Conclusions: This study helps explain why C7 is a suitable donor for brachial plexus injury treatment and why there is only a transient sensory deficit after transfer. Muscle Nerve 49: 40–46, 2014Muscle & Nerve 01/2014; 49(1). DOI:10.1002/mus.23864 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ) seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and other regions. Our data provide the first evidence on abnormal functional connectivity after experimental TBI assessed with resting state BOLD-fMRI.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95280. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095280 · 3.53 Impact Factor