Evidence for involvement of Dicer-like, Argonaute and histone deacetylase proteins in gene silencing in Phytophthora infestans.
ABSTRACT Gene silencing may have a direct or indirect impact on many biological processes in eukaryotic cells, and is a useful tool for the determination of the roles of specific genes. In this article, we report silencing in Phytophthora infestans, an oomycete pathogen of potato and tomato. Gene silencing is known to occur in P. infestans, but its genetic basis has yet to be determined. Genes encoding the major components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, Dicer-like (Pidcl1), Argonaute (Piago1-5) and RNA-directed RNA polymerase (Pirdr1), were identified in the P. infestans genome by comparative genomics, together with families of other genes potentially involved in gene silencing, such as histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, DEAD helicases, chromodomain proteins and a class 1 RNaseIII. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated transcript accumulation for all candidate genes throughout the asexual lifecycle and plant infection, but at different levels of mRNA abundance. A functional assay was developed in which silencing of the sporulation-associated Picdc14 gene was released by the treatment of protoplasts with in vitro-synthesized double-stranded RNAs homologous to Pidcl1, Piago1/2 and histone deacetylase Pihda1. These results suggest that the components of gene silencing, namely Dicer-like, Argonaute and histone deacetylase, are functional in P. infestans. Our data demonstrate that this oomycete possesses canonical gene silencing pathways similar to those of other eukaryotes.
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ABSTRACT: The fungal pathogen Setosphaeria turcica causes turcicum or northern leaf blight disease on maize, sorghum and related grasses. A prevalent foliar disease found worldwide where the two host crops, maize and sorghum are grown. The aim of the present study was to find genes controlling the host defense response to this devastating plant pathogen. A cDNA-AFLP approach was taken to identify candidate sequences, which functions were further validated via virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), and real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to address evolutionary events. cDNA-AFLP analysis was run on susceptible and resistant sorghum and maize genotypes to identify resistance-related sequences. One CC-NB-LRR encoding gene GRMZM2G005347 was found among the up-regulated maize transcripts after fungal challenge. The new plant resistance gene was designated as St referring to S. turcica. Genome sequence comparison revealed that the CC-NB-LRR encoding St genes are located on chromosome 2 in maize, and on chromosome 5 in sorghum. The six St sorghum genes reside in three pairs in one locus. When the sorghum St genes were silenced via VIGS, the resistance was clearly compromised, an observation that was supported by real-time PCR. Database searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the St genes have a common ancestor present before the grass subfamily split 50-70 million years ago. Today, 6 genes are present in sorghum, 9 in rice and foxtail millet, respectively, 3 in maize and 4 in Brachypodium distachyon. The St gene homologs have all highly conserved sequences, and commonly reside as gene pairs in the grass genomes. Resistance genes to S. turcica, with a CC-NB-LRR protein domain architecture, have been found in maize and sorghum. VIGS analysis revealed their importance in the surveillance to S. turcica in sorghum. The St genes are highly conserved in sorghum, rice, foxtail millet, maize and Brachypodium, suggesting an essential evolutionary function.BMC Plant Biology 11/2011; 11:151. · 4.35 Impact Factor